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July 20, ipo- 


•• Kmg."] 


The Jester Abroad — Five PictUT-es Keqniiing No 

(Continued on page 3.) 

"Don't shout." 

■• I hear you. I can hear 
now as well as anybody 
■■'How'' Oh someihing 


I ve a pair 
in my ears 
now, you can'i 
see the m — 
iheyre invis- 
ible. I wouldn't know 
I had them in myself 
only that 
I bear all 
tight •■ 


IS really a substitute for the working 
pans of the natural ear. Has no wire 
Invisible easy to adjust, cotnforiablp 
Totally diHerent from any other devjce ' 
Descriptive pamphlet sent upon request 




Light, Strong, and Rabbit Proof. 

Made of STEEL TUBE, with Malleable IRON 
FITTINGS ; with Galvanised Steel Wire woven 
on to the frames. 


Weight of a 9-foot Gate under 50 lbs. Hinges, Catchei, 
and Stop8 complete. Can be hung in a few minutes. 

Send fbr Illustrated Catalogue 
of FencOi Gates, and Droppers. 




Same as 1903 style except Z 
:Double Walled.; 

Having- i-eceived many requests 
for a Cabinet containing all the vir- 
tues of our famous 1903 style, with 
however double walls —something' 
that would sell at a higher price — 
prompts us in offering our new 190-t Style Double-Walled 
Quaker Cabinet. 

For bathing purposes, beneficial effects, convenience, 
simplicity and durability, our 1904 Style Cabinet cannot 
be excelled, and for the class of people who want a double- 
walled cabinet — the best — we recommend Style 1904. 


1903 style (single wall) 25/- 

Head and face steaming attachment (single wall) 3/6 

1904 style (double walls) 45/- 

Head and face steaming attachment (double walls) 5/6 

Complete with best alcohol stove. Rack, Handle and 
Vapour Cup, directions, formulas, ready for instant use 
when received. 


With the next 100 ofithe 
1904 Style Cabinet sold, 
we will out in the head steaming attachment, 
absolutelv free (usual price 5/6), to advertise 
thes Cabinets. 

We pay freight to all direct Railway routes in Victoria . 
N. S. Wales and S. Australia, also Australian and N. Z. 


2 29-231 "Coil ins Street, Melbourne. 

For mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention the Review of RevletAfs. 



July 20, igo2. 




Is galvanised after being put together. This 
galvanises every rivet and bolt in its position, 
protecting the bolts and the cut edges from 
mst. This galvanising business is a great 
feature — increasing the life of the MILL. 


They have ball bearings, which is another 
valuable point. 




Bourke St., Melbourne. Pitt St., Sydney. ) 

fc ^ r> A ^ 

Over 100 Years haye proved their Value. | 


Inventor of 




The best for all W0UKD3 and 



for all impurities of the blood. 
Invaluable for Skin Diseases. 
Prices, IS. ij^d. and 2S. gd eachl 
of Medicine Vendors, or post free! 
for Stamps from Sole Makers. [ 


Bom 1 766. Dief^ 1834- Bridport. 





No Injury to Health. 

Rapid Eftect. 



5/3 Post. 



Steinway Pianos 

Brinsmead Pianos 

Cipp Pianos 

i( « ik 

t» « « « 

Easiest Terms. 

Lowest Prices. 

CbC ^^UiCtOr*^ PIflnO cue Be$t CDeap Piano on the market. ! 






^ ♦ 

W. H. PALING (St CO., Ltd., 338 George St., Sydney. BHs.rntl^."e^Xcast,e t 



rnr mutual aauanuu^c vvncn yuu vvf ilc lu <xn aavrtiser pieaise mention the Review of Reviews 

July 20, ipo2. 




The Jester Abroad. 
(Continued on page 7.) 


Ist— The New MOULDED Records, made of a harder 
material, which is more durable, and wears better than 
the old tvpe, is not damaged by handling, anu is more 
natural in tone, more distinct, and of exceptional loud- 

2nd. — The new Model " C " Reproducer, for all ma- 
chines (except Gem), which has two absolutely new and 
important features, viz., a built up, indestructible dia- 
phragm, very highly sensitive, and a new form of 
sapphire, shaped like a button, and so placed in the Re- 
producer arm that the edge of the sapphire tracks in th« 
groove of the Record; the contact surface is very much 
smaller than that of the old ball type, and in conse- 
quence can follow the undulations of the record without 
that tendency to jump from crest to crest so often the 
case with uie old style. That harshness which has 
hitherto characterised the reproduction of the Phono- 
graph and kindred machines is now entirely overcome, 
the result being a perfectly natural and musical effect 
most pleasing to the ear. 

In future the " Gem " will be equipped with the Modal 
B Automatic Reproducer, as previously supplied with the 
higher-priced machines. This will materially improve 
the reproduction of the Gem, both with the present style 
and the new Moulded Record. 



Universal Chambers, 


Teleiihone 505. 

'Box 62, G.P.O. 

Cable—" Netting." 


Our Manufacture of . . 


Wire Netting 


The Tasmanian Wool- 
.£^rowers' Agency Co. Ltdi 


Walter Reid & Co. Ltd., 

Elder, Smith & Co. Ltd., 

Burns, Philp & Co. Ltd., \\|i 


William Crosby & Co., 


Colonial Made Centre-Strand Wire Nettings. 
All Sizes. Black and Galvanised. 


Bird Proof— 

h I, 1 in- . : 

Rabbit Proof— 

li, H in. 

Hare and Fowl Proof— 

Ij and 2 in. 4,' 

Marsupial, Sheeft and 
Pig Proof— 

•2i, 3 and 4 in. '^'. 

LYSAGHT BROS. & CO. Ltd., Wire Netting Manufacturers 


^ Works: Chrlswick, Parramatta River. I Works: Footscray. <^ 

Branches also at BRISBANE AND fremantle. 

for mutual advantage wnen you write to an advertiser Diease mention the Review of levlews. 



July 20, l()02. 

Price, 30 - 

Lighter Quality, 


Delivered in Melb. 
and Suburbs. 


Keeps the body healtliy and \igorous, Swiftens the flow of 

Sluggish Blood, and Restores the natural bloom of youth. 
Exhilarating to a degree undreamed of by those unacquainted 
with Vapor Bathing. Enables vou to enjoy at home, in , 
your own bedroom, all the advantages of the Famous Hot 
Spring Baths of New Zealand. Complete Formula of Medi- 
cations with each Cabinet. Fcldsup when not inuse. Inspec- 
tion cordially invited. Send for descriptive circular, gratis. 
Agents want'ed. g^^^ Victorian- Depot : 


143TooraK-road, South Yarra (adjoining Railway Station), 
iVleibourne, v'Ictorla. 



with Com* 
fort Abso> 
lutely un> 


Will do ALL THE COOKING for a household 


Every Apparatus fitted with the silent "Primus.'* 

Prices from 38/6 to 70 -. 



Corner of Collins and Swanston Sts., 



The Great Health Food, 

The Great Health Food 




Children Like It 

Doctors Recommend It. 




♦ Wholesale Agents. 

« »♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦•»♦■»♦♦♦■»♦♦♦<»■»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»»»♦»♦» »»»»»»»«,»»^^ 





For mutual advantage when yo" write to an advertiser please nnentlon the Review of Kevlews. 

July 20, igo2. 




Vbb famous remedy for 

Has the Largest Sale of any Chest Medicine in Australln, 


Those who have taken this medicine are amazed at its wonderful inflaence. Sufferers from any form of Bronchitis, Cough, DifBculty of 
Breathing-, Hoarseness, Pain or Soreness in the Chest, experience delightful and inunediate relief ; and to tho«e who are subject to Colds on the 
<3hest it is invaluable, as it effects a Complete Cure. It is most comforting in allaying irritation in the throat and giving strength to the voice, 
«nd it neither allows a Cough or Asthma to become Chronic, nor Consumption to develop. Consumption has never been known to exist where 
"Coughs" have been properly treated with this medicine. No house should be without it, as, taken at the beginning, a dose is ,-enerally 
•ufficient, and a Complete Cure is certain. 

Remember that every disease has its commencement, and Consumption 
is no exception to this rule. 




•' Mr. W. G. Hearne— Dear Sir, — I am writing to tell you about the 
-wonderful cure yotir medicine has effected in my case. About three 
years ago I began to cough. At first the cough was not severe, but it 
gradually got worse, and I became very weak and troubled with night 
eweats, pain in my chest, and great quantities of phlegm. On several 
oocasione there was blood in the expectoraied matter. I had been 
treated by a doctor, who pronounced my case to be Consumption, and 
TMious other treatmenig had been tried, but without benefit. It was 
«t this stage that I heard of your Bronchitis Cure, and sent to you for 
« course of the medicine. When it arrived I was too ill to leave my 
fced, but I commenced taking it at once, and gradually improved. I 
va\ glad to say that the two lots of medicine you sent have effected a 
«oinplete cure, for which accept my very best thanks— Yours grate- 
fully, "J. BLAIR. 

"Westminster, Bridge-road, S.E., London." 



- " Dergholm, Victoria. 

" Dear Sir, — I wish to add my testimony to the wonderful effect of 
your Bronohicis Cure. I suffered for nine months, and the cough was 
•o distressingly bad at nights I was obliged to get up and sit by the 
fire. I had medical advice, and tried other 'remedies,' without avail. 
I tried yours, and never had a fit of coughing after taking the first 
dose, and though I have had but two bottles I feel I am a different 
man, and the cough has vanished. You may depend upon my making 
known the efficacy of your wonderful remedy to anyone I see afflicted. 
" Yours faithfully, JAMES ASTBUBY." 



"The Scientific Australian Office, 169 Queen-st., Melbourne. 
"Dear Mr. Hearne, — The silent workers are frequently the most 
effective, and if there is anybody in Victoria who during the iMt few 
years has been repeatedly working for and singing the praises of 
Bearne's Bronchitis Cure, it is our Mr. Phillips. This gentleman, 
■ome three years ago, was recommended to try vour Bronohitis Cure 
by Mr. Barham, accountant, Collins-street, and the effect that it had 
was so marked that he has ever since been continually recommending 
tt to others. We are glad to add this our testimony to the value of 
Hearne's most valuable Bronchitis Cure, which has eased the sufferings 
of hundreds and hundreds of people even in our own circle of acquaint- 
Mioe. Believe us always to be yours most faithfully, 




"69 Queen-st., Brisbane, Queensland. 
" Mr. W. G. Hearne. Dear Sir,— Please send us 36 dozen Bronchitis 
4}nre by first boat. We enclose our cheque to cover amount of order. 
We often hear your Bronchitis Cure spoken well of. A gentleman told 
as to-day that he had given it to a child of his with most remarkable 
ffwalt, the child being quite cured by three doses. 
" We are, faithfully yours, 
"THOMASON, CHATER & CO., Wholesale Ohemiits." 

Wt, the undersigned, have had occasion to obtain Hearne's Bron- 
chitis Cure, and we certify that it was perfectly and rapidly successful 
«Bd»r oiroumstances which undoubtedly prove its distinct healing 
fmtt. Signed by the Rev. JOHN SINCLAIR, Myers-street, Geelong, 
«ad flfty-nine othar leading residents. 



Mr. Alex. J. Anderson, of Oak Park, Charlesville, Queensland, 
writes: — "After suffering from Asthma for seventeen years, and 
having been under a great many different treatments without benefit, 
I was induced to try Hearne's medicine for Asthma. After taking 
three bottles of this medicine I quite got rid of the Asthma, and since 
then, wliieh was in the beginning of 1883 (15 years ago), I have not 
had the slightest return of it. The medicine quite cured me, and I 
have much pleasure in recommending it." 

Writing again on the 4th April, 1899, he states:— "I am keeping 
very well now. Never have the slightest return of the Asthma." 


" I used your Eronchiiis Cure for three of my family, arid it cured 
each of them in from one to three doses. — P. F. JIULLINS, Cowie'i 
Creek, Victoria." 

" Your Bronchitis Cure relieved my son wonderfully quick. I only 
gave him four doses, and have some of the medicine yet; but I am 
sending for another bottle in case I should want it. — D. M'DONALD. 
Trinky, via Quirindi, N.S.W." 

" My wife is 82 years old, and I am 79, and I am glad to inform you 
that your Bronchitis Cure has done us both a wonderful deal of good, 
it having quickly cured us both. — R. BASSET, Strath Creek, via 
Broadford, Victoria." 

" I have used one bottle of your Broncliitis Cure with great benefit 
to myself, as the smothering has completely left me.— (Mrs.) JOHN 
RAHILLY, Glenmaggie, Victoria." 

" I have finished the Bronchitis Cure you sent, and am am«iied at 
what it has done in the time. The difficulty of breathing has all gone. 
—J. HARRINGTON, Bingegong, Morundah, N.S.W." 

•I lately administered some of your Bronchitis Cure to a son o( 
mine, with splendid effect. The cure was absolutely miraculous. — D. 
A. PACKER, Quiera, Neutral Bay, Sydney, N.S.W." 

"Your Bronchitis Cure, as usual, acted splendidly. — C. H. 
RADFORD, Casterton, Victoria." 

" Kindly forward another bottle of your famous Bronchitis Cure 
without delay, as I find it to be a most valuable medicine.— (Mrs.) J. 
SLATER, Warragul, Victoria." 

"I am very pleased with your Bronchitis Cure. The result was 
marvellous. It eased me right off at once. — G. SEYTER, Bourke, 

"Your medicine tor Asthma is worth £1 a bottle.— W. LETTS, Hey- 
wood, Victoria." 

" I have tried lots of medicine, but yours is the best I ever had. I 
am recommending it to everybody. — S. STEELE, Yanko Siding, 

" I suffered from Chronic Asthma and Bronchitis, for which £ ob- 
tained no relief until I tried your medicine, but I can truly say that I 
am astonished at mv present freedom, as a direct result of my brief 
trial.— JOHN C. TRELAWNEY, Severn River, via Inverell, N.S.W." 

" Last year I suffered severely from Bronchitis, and the doctor, to 
whom I paid seven guineas, did not do me nny good; but I heard of 
your Bronchitis Cure, and two bottles of it made me quite well.— H. 
HOOD, Brooklands, Avoca-street, South Yarra, .Melbotiriie." 

" Please send me half-a-dozen of your Bronchitis Cure. This medi- 
cine cured me in the winter, and has now cured a friend of mine of a 
very bad Bronchitis.— A. ALLEN, Ozone House, Lome, Victoria." 

" Your Bronchitis Cure has done me much good. This is a new n- 
perience, for all the medicine I previously took made me much woi»e. 
I am satisfied that the two bottles of Bronchitis Cure I got from yoo 
have pulled me through a long and dangerous illness.- HENRY 
WURLOD, Alma, near Maryborough, Victoria." 

"The bottle of Bronchitis Cure I got from vou was magical in Its 
effects.— CHAS. WHYBROW, Enoch's Point, via Darlingford, Vlo- 

" Upon looking through our books we are jiruok with the steady 
and rapid increase in the sales of your Bronchitis Cure.— ELLIOTT 
BROS., Ltd., Wholesale Druggists, Sydney, N.S.W." 

rf>*p*red only, and sold wholesale and retail, by the Proprietor, W. G. HEARNE, Chemist, Geelong:, V.ctorla. 

jHallslsa, 2a. Sd. ; large, 4«. 6d^ Sold by Chemists and Medicine Vendors. Forwarded by post to any address when not obta^iable locally. 

Per mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention the Review of Reviews, 



July 20, igo2. 








T^r and im- 
porter of all 
for Watering 
House, 01- 

The Cheapest, 
Simplest, and 
Most Durable 


Awarded 8 Gold 


Hundreds of 


The Largest 


and Supplier in 

the Australian 


Catalogues Free 

on Application. 

Specially adapt- 
ed for Stock 
Water Supply. 


^EAR QtJEETT's Bbidge. SoutH Melboume. 


Insist on Having the 


Catalogues Post Free 

Mabie, Todd & Bard, 

93, Cheapside, B.C. "^ 




BOTH and the 




Established nine years ago by Dr. WoHenden, is now 1b th« 

REV. A. R. EDOAR, 8up«rint«nd«n«. 
This is its Gcarahtek or Good Faith. 

rpHE TREATMENT which is oonduoted at the Instl- 
^ tute, "Otiea," Jolimoht Shuam, Jolimomt, Id 
private and pleasant surroundings, oompletoly de- 
stroys the craving and desire for drink and drugs, and 
sets their victim free. At the same time it tones up 
his aystem and makes him a better man physioally, A 
leading Oollins-street physician watches each oaae. 

"^eod for Pamphlet (gratis). Address to the Instit«ta, t 
Mr. a. J. DiRBiOK, 0«ntral Misdoa, MelbosmM. 
Mwinoii ma Papml, 

-S _' 1 I ■ . 

ia et-oacT-Zru^ LOG C S_ 



For mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention the Review of Reviews 

July 20, igo2. 




The Jester Abroad. 

(ContiiUK'd c.n jmge 9. 



"^Y E grant every purchaser of our ELECTRIC BELTS and 
APPLLANCES a trial of Thirty Days before payment, 

which is ful ly explained in our "ELECTRIC ERA." Our 

Electric Belts w-ill cure all 
NERVOUS and other DIS- 
EASES in all stages, however 
caused, and restore the 
wearer to ROBUST HEALTH. 

Our Marvellous Electric 
Belts give a steady soothing 
current that can be felt by the 
wearer through all WEAIv 
a written guarantee with each 
Electric Belt that it will per- 
manently cure you. If it does 
not we will promptly return 
the full amount paid. We 
mean exactly what we say, 
and do precisely what we 

NOTICE. — Before purchasing we prefer that jou send for 
our "ELECTRIC ERA" and Price List (post free), giving 
illustrations of different appliances for BOTH SEXES, also 
TESTIMONY which will convince the most sceptical. 

Address — (^ 

j German Electric Belt Agency, 









(High CommiBsiouer of Crete, etc., etc.) 


" FOR 



Th« FIneat Dressing Specially Prepared and 
Delicately Perfumed. 

A Luxury and a Necessity to Every Modern Toilet. 


Prodaoea Laxariant Hair. Frevents its Falling 00 or 
Turning Grey. Unequalled for Promoting the Growth of 
tha Beard and Moustache. The Renowned Remedy for 
Baldnetig. Per Preserving, Strengthening, and Rendering 
the Hair Beautifully Soft; for Bemovingr Scurf, Dandruff, 
etc., alio for rostoring grey hair to ita Original Colour. 
Fall Description and Direction for use in 20 Languages 
supplied with every Bottle. 
Is., 2s. 6cl., and (3 times 28. 6d. size) 4s. 6d. per Bottle, 
from Chemists, Hairdressers, and Stores all over the Worla. 

cDWARDS' "HARLENE" CO., 95 &. 96 High Holborn, London, W.C. 

For .lutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention tl^ Review of Reviews 



July 20. I go 2. 


For the WEAK and 

CURED while you SLEEP. 
Catalogue Free. 


44 Castle reacrh Stre*t| 



The Cootamundra Liberal. 


Circulating freely in Cootamundra, Gundagai, 
Wallendbeen, Bethungra, Moatfield, Stockinbingal, 
Bprlngdale, Jugiong, Jingalee, Temora, Adelong, 
Muttama, and many other places. 

Editor, E. DOIDGE. 

A-uthor ol " Father and Son," " The Daughtere of 
Btg "—a tale of the Maori War, " The Mystery of 
Mervellien," " Marian Gonisby," " Piwee, Daughter 
of Taranul," etc. 


** Carrageen, " • or . 




For mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention the Review of Reviews. 

July 20, igo2. 




The Jester Abroad. 

(Continued on page H.l 




B««ut(ful and EvccUattcg. 
Aiwayi Clean. 
Pot Bathroomi. LavatoHM, 
etc., etc. 

. . . ART 1ST IG 


mall Papers 


Leaded and Embossed Glass. 
High-Relief Ceiling Decorations. 
Mantelpieces, Hearth Tiles, Grates. 
Stained Glass and Tiles. 



*'A PERFECT Food for Infants." ^ 

Mrs. ADA S. B.ALLIN, ^ 

Editress of Baby. 

Over 70 Years' ^^^^ 

BstablLshed Reputation. .^^TftV 



"Very carefully prepared and highly nu- 
tritious. ' ' -li ANCBT. 

"Admirably adapted to the wants of infants 
and young persons." 


Ex-President of the Royal College of 
Surgeons, Ireland. 





Absolutely Conquered in 20 Days. 

l^°See my proposition to the Government, 
November 8th, 1901, wherein I agree to 
accept 100 Test Cases, and prove that my 
Vegetable Cure for Alcoholism is a positive 
and reliable remedy. Home treatment 
within the reach of all. No restrictions, no 
hypodermic injections. Full particulars free. 

W. LANQSTON, M.R.c s., Eng.. 

68 Russell St., Melbourne. 


Woman's international Exhibition, 
London, 1900. 

Manufacturers: JOSIAH R. NEAVE & CO., 
Fordingbridge, England. 

For mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser pfease mention the Review of Reviews. 


THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS. July 20, 1902. 



Taught by Correspondence. Easy to Learn. 


■••^^^=- Satisfaction given or Fee Returned. 


Send for Prospectus, etc., Free 

Inquiry Solicited.' ^^' a 

I give over 600 practical illustrations of 
how to memorise, with rapidity and cer- 
tainty, history, geography, foreign 
languages, chemistry, physiology, 
ledger folios, names, addresses, and 
the theory of music, counterpoint, etc. 

The AInrtAnac for the Year 

memomed in 3 miinutes. 




Great Reductions! 

Having, during the last fourteen years, had thousands of pupils who still 
kindly bear testimony to the value of my System of Memory Training, I now 
offer it to the public at the undermentioned REDUCED rates. I now use my 
SIXTH EDITION, which is a greatly improved form of the lessons for which 
I used to charge 60s. For the full course of MEMORY LESSONS by corres- 
pondence, with Figure Dictionary, and printed exercise forms, etc. etc., my 
terms now are: — 

(1) Private pupils, 20s. each. 

(2) A Class of four or more persons, sending the money at same time, los. 
each; but each member of such class will be taught separately. 

(3) Teachers 15s., and pupil teachers 10s., each. 

On receipt of the fee the first lesson shall be promptly sent to the address 
of the applicant, with the understanding that the pupil shall not teach it to 
others. Prospectus, with heaps of testimonials, free. Send for one; but, to 
save time, forward application and fee at once to — 

R. BROWN, 229 Collins St., Melbourne, Vic. 

Por mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention the Review of Reviewa 

July 20, ipo2. 




The Jester Abroad. 


Should Stay at thb Magnificent 



Position most Central. Charges Moderate. 

Rooms, iBoluding light and attendance, from 6/- 
p«r day. 



Cbc new Ccral. 
Cbe Original Cropo. 

10/6 and 12/6. 

Two Hats manufactured specially for the 
Australian Climate. Comfortable and Durable. 
The Best that Monev can Buv. 

Sun and Rain Proof, 
By Post, 11/- and 13/6. 



For mutual advantase when you write to an advertiser oiease mention the Review of Revlewa 



Inly 20, IQ02. 


/Ilbetbobiet Xa^ice' College, 


"If there is a. College in Australia that trains its girls to be ladies it is the Methodist Ladies' 
Collecre."— A Parent in New South Wales. 

"The best praise of the Collegre is that it trains its grirls in character. This is what a parent 
values.''— A Victorian Parent. 


THE COLLEGE consists of stately buildings (on 
which nearly £40,000 has been spent), stand- 
ing in Spacious Grounds, and furnished with 
the latest and most perfect educational appli- 
ances. It includes Gymnasium, Art Studio, 
Swimming Bath, Tennis Court, etc. 

THE ORDINARY STAFF numbers fifteen, and 
includes six University Graduates, making it 
the strongest Teaching Staff of any Girls' 
School in Australia. 

ACCOfVIPLISHMENTS.— The Visiting Staff con- 
sists of eighteen experts of the highest stand- 
ing, including the very best Teachers in Music, 
Singing, and all forms of Art. 

BOARDERS are assured of wise training in so- 
cial habits, perfect comfort, refined com- 
panions, and a happy College life. 

RELIGIOUS TRAINING.— Each Boarder attends 
the Church to which her parents belong, and is 
under the Pastoral Charge of its Minister. 
Regular Scripture teaching by the President. 


are attracted by the reputation of the College, 
and by the pre-eminent advantages in Health, 
Happiness, and Education it offers, from all 
the Seven States. 

SPECIAL STUDENTS.— Young Ladies are re- 
ceived who wish to pursue Special Lines of 
Study without taking up the full course of or- 
dinary school work. 

triculation Examinations, fourteen students of 
the I\LL.C. passed, out of seventeen officially 
" sent up," and two of the unsuccessful missed 
by only one point each! This is the highest 
proportion of passes secured by any college. 
There were no failures in Greek, Algebra, 
French, German, Botany, Geography, and 
Music, and only one in English and Physiology. 
Thirteen " Honours " were obtained in English, 
French, and German. 

The following are unsought testimonials to the 
work of the College, taken from letters of parents 
received during 1901. They are samples, it may be 
added, of scores of similar letters received: 

A parent whose girls have been, for some years, 

day-girls at the College, writes: 

" Now that their school years are coming to an end, 
it is a great pleasure to me to be able to say what I 
hope will be the life-long benefit they have derived from 
being alumnae of the M.L.C. Their progress amply 
repays my wife and myself for any sacrifice we have 
made to secure them this great advantage." 

A country banker, whose two daughters were re- 
sident students, writes: 

" I am satisfied that my daughters have the good for- 
tune to be where they have every advantage that talent, 
tone, and exceptional kindness can give to school-girls. 

From a country minister: 

" The College was a very happy home to our girl 
for the two years she was there. She is never weary 

telling us of the great kindness and care she always 

A South Australian lady writes: 

" I wanted my girl to be brought up amongst lady- 
like companions, and to be happy; and I must con- 
gratulate you on accomplishing what is not only my 
desire, but what, I am sure, is the desire of hundreds of 
other mothers as well." 

From a parent whose daughters have been day- 

" I look upon the M.L.C. as a real temple of purity, 
kindness, and happy girl-life." 

The " Young Man " (England) : 

" British readers will probably have but little idea 
of the national importance of this institution. It has 
earned the reputation of being one of the best High 
Schools for girls, not in Australia only, but in all the 



July so. 1902. 




The New Combination Pin- 
cushion, Thimble and Reel 
Holder, nickel plated, plush top. 

Clamps on to any table by means 
of spring. PRICE, only 2 -; post free. 


229-231 CoUins-st., Melb. 


For the Treatment of Catarrh. Hay Fever, 
Bronchitis, influenza, Catarrhal 
Deafness, etc. 
Medicator, with complete treat- 
ment, only 10 -, post free. 




■ //«/ I 

Crai.d Ptano-l 

tke Tone. 

The NEW HflRP-ZITHEl?, of Piano-Harp. 

A Harp that Anyt ne can Play. 

Louder than the Large Italian 


Or its tones can be modulated to the soft, sweet tones of the German Zither. In addition 
to its wonderful tone quality, the Harp-Ziiher has a great many advantages over all other 
Zithers. It is the only Zither that may be plaved while holding vertically like the Harp, or 
it may be laid upon a table, as is necessary with the ordinary Zither Observe the diagonally 
crossed strings, almost the same as in a piano, the melody strings pasmig over the chord 
s/iincs. Bv means of this improvement in construction the similarity in tone and volume 
of thf piano is produced. 

Beautiful In Design, Graad Resonant Tone, Perfection in Every Point 

and it is the easiest to learn to play of any instrument in existence. /4 child can play it 
almost at sight. The reason anvone can play this instrument on first trial, even though the 
person may knovy absolutely nothing about music, or may not hava an ear for music, is this : 
Each string is numbered, as is each note in the music, so all one has to do to render the 
most difficult seleciions is to strike the strings as indicated by the numbers ; hence, we 
guarantee that anyone able to read figures can learn to play. 

The Harp-Zither is built on the lines of the large harp which sells at £20 and upwards, 
and to the astonishment of all the Harp-Zither has the louder tone of the two ; in fact, its 
tone is similar to that of a piano. S.\TISFACTION GUARANTEED. 

As a parlor ornament, the instrument, with its classical outlines, is unique. For the 
serenade, the musicale, or any class of entertainment, the Harp-Zither excels all other 
instruments of its class. Its deep, sympathetic tones penetrate even those insensible to the 
charms of music. 

Style 1.— Ebonised, piano finish, decorated, twenty-three strings, three cords, two picUs, 
key, case, full instructions, and a lot of figure music, price 25/-. Carriage Paid by Parcel 
Post to any part ol Australasia. Size of Style i Harp-Zither is 10 inches wide by 18 inches 
long. We are sole agents in Australasia for the Harp-Zither. Orders should by sent by 
Money Order in Registered Letter and addressed to — 


229-231 COLLINS ST., 


Harmonica or Mouth'Harp and Zither 
Jtccompaniment Combined. 

The tone of the harp enters directly into the body of the instrument and 
emanates at the sound-hole with wonderful volume and vibratory effect, twice 
as loud as both Mandolin and Guitar. Any Mouth Harp player can play the 
Harp-o-Chord on sight, and anyone can easily learn to play the Mouth Harp 
One person can furnish music for Parties, etc., and for the Serenade it has nc 
equal w'lth its beautiful tone and wonderful carrying power. A Whole Band in 
One Instrument, and anyone can learn to play it. No knowledge of music is 
required. The HARP-O-CHORD is an elegantly finished high-class instrument, 
sold at a price within the price of all. Its dimensions arp seventeen inches long 
by eight inches wide, weight forty ounces. It Is substantially constructed, 
elegantly finished and decorated, strung with copper-spun and silver-steel 
strings, blue steel tuning pins, polished. Each instrument fitted with a high 
grade Harmonica, and enclosed in a neat pasteboard case, with tuning key, and 
the simple but complete instructions for playing. Simply play the tu.n; or air 
upon the Harp and the accompaniment on the strings. When the Chords ar« 
played upon the strings and the tune upon the harp, the voluminous tone of the 
combination surprises all. The tone of the harp is not only greatly increased 
in volume, but displays a richness and mellowness before unknown. Price of 
the Harp-o-Chord complete, with Mouth Harp, Key, and full directions, 18,'6. 
Carriage Paid by Parcels Post to any part of Australasia. We are sole agents in 
Australasia for the Harp-o-Chord. Orders should be sent accompanied by 
Money Order in Registered Letter and addressed to — 

229-231 COLLTMS ST., 



The peerless GRINDER 

Attaches to any Treadle Sewing- Machine, and is driven in the same way as the bobbin ; in thia'way 
high speed is obtained. The PEERLESS GRINDER is a simple and practical appliance for sharpening: 
scissors, shears, knives, bread saws, needles, etc. The grinding wheel is made of 
solid carborduudum, the only cool cutting, and, in fact, the most desirable stone to be found. Finger 
guides are so arranged that the blades of scissors are held at proper angle wherebv hnt.h blades are 
sharpened at same time, a true level and perfect edge being obtained. 

Price, 4/©.1.^Carriage paid to any part of Australas, 

5TAR NOVELTY COMPANY, 229-231 Collins Street, Melbourne. 

Por mutij;U advantage wh«n you write to an aavartiser oiease mantion tne Revlaw of Revlewa 



July 20, ip02. 



Makers of High-Class Laundry Machinery and Cook- 
ing Apparatus for Asylums, Hotels, Mansions, Public 
and Private Laundries, etc., etc 

Largest Makers 

in the World 









JOLLY BROS.P Cromwell Buildings, Melbourne. 












H (/) 

2 C/) 

^^- E 


1 defy all 



J ^M^' LTD. 




_: C 

s « 

^ 5 

^ 5 

t3 ffl 

CO -^ 

•-; CO 

O ts 







. k 





For mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention the Review of Reviews. 

July 20, 1902. 



" King."] 


POR THE ffAin 

It is the most reliable and the best 
preparation for the hair, you can obtaiij 
110 years success proves this. It 


restores it when thin or withered, cures 
baldness, eradicates scurf, is specially 
adapted for Ladies' and Childrens' Hair, 
and is also sold in a 


for fair or grey hair, which does not 
stain or darken the hair, or linen. 
Sold by Stores or Chemists. Ask for 
Rowlands, 67, Hatton Garden, London, 

Boer=British War Pictures. 

The end of the War la In sight, everybody will 
■Off wunt Picture* illustrating the various battles 
fought In South Africa. We have at great expense 
published nine large and beautiful pictures, on 
beavy, superfine, calendered paper. 









Theae pictures are 20 x 28 in. Sample and terms. 
Is. 2d. each; all four for 3s.; 7s. per dozen; 28 for 
laa.; 50 for £1 3s.; £2 per 100. 


These pictures are 32 x 28 in. Sample and term*, 
2s. each; all flv« for 7s. 3d.; 15s. per dozen; 25 
for £1 6s.: 50 for £2 12b.; £5 4su per 100. Vecy 
handsome, printed in 6 to 14 colours. 

coin money. Enormous success. The pictures 
are RED HOT SELLERS. Veritable mortgage 
raisers; one agent sold eighty-six in one day. We 
will sell a COMPLETE OUTFIT, consisting d all 
the nine different pictures, for only 9fl. This sum 
you may deduct when you have ordered for £5 
worth. Absolutely no pictures sent free. Don't 
waste time and postage in writing for lower prices. 
We pay all charges. We take back all unsold pic- 
tures and refund your money. Remit by Interna- 
tional P.O., Money Order or Bank Draft, payable in 
the U.S. Prepay all letters to us with 2id. Let 
us attend to your wants. We can sell you any- 
thing you want. Our picture stock is the largest 
of all kinds, books, jewellery, silverware, mu«oal 
instruments, talking machines, magic lanterns, etc., 
etc. We are the largest Agents Supply House in 
America. Correspondence invited. Enclose stamps 
for reply. Cut this out and send to-day and begin 
to make money. Address: 


(Dept. 710) P.O. Box 518. 


For mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention the Review of Reviews 



luly 20, igo2. 




All Functional Derangements of the Liver, Temporary Con- 
gestion arising from Alcoholic Beverages, Errors in Diet, 
Biliousness. Sick Headache. Giddiness, Vomiting, Heartburn. 

Sourness of the Stomach, ConstipafMon, Thirst, 
Skin Eruptions, Boils. Feverish Cold with High Temperature 
and Quick Pulse. Influenza, Throat AfPections and 
Fevers of all kinds. 

INDIGESTION, BILIOUSNESS, SICKNESS, etc— "1 have often thought of -srriting to tell 
you -n-hat 'FEUIT SALT' has done for me. I used to be a perfect martyr to Indigestion and Biliousness. 
Aboiit six or seven years back my husband suggested I shoidd try ' rRUIT SALT.' I did so, and the 
result has been marvellous ; I never have the terrible pains and sickness I used to have ; I can eat almost 
anything now. I always keep it in the house and recommend it to my friends, as it is such an invaluable 
pick-me-up if you have a headache or don't feel just right. " "Yours truly, (August 8, 1900)." 

The effect of ENO'S 'FRUIT SALT' on a Disordered, Sleepless, and Feverish Condition is simply 
marvellous. It is, in fact, Nature's Own Remedy, and an Unsurpassed One. 

CAUTION. — See capsule marked Eno'S • Fruit Salt.' Without it you have a Worthless Imitation. 
** Prepared only by J. C. ENO, Ltd., at the 'FRUIT SALT' WORKS, LONDON, by J. C. ENO'S Patent. <* 

JUlcnbui^s Foods. 

A PROGRESSIVE DIETARY, unique in providing; nourishment suited to the growing digestive powers 
of YOUNG INFANTS from birth upwards, and free from dangerous germs. 

The " Allenburys 

Milk Food No. 

Specially adapted to the first three months of life. 

The " Allenburys " Milk Food No. 2 

^——^^^•^—^ Similarly adapted to the second three months of life. 

The " Allenburys " Malted Food No. 3 

^^^^^~ For Infants over six months of ajfe. 


Complete Foods, 


needing the addition of 

hot water only. 

To be prepared for use by the 
addition of COW'S MELlK, 
according to directions given. 

No. 3 Food is 8tron<rly recommended for Convalescents, Invalids, the Aged, and all requiring a light and easily 

digested diet. The "London Medical Record " writes of it that— " No Better Food Exists." 

PAMPHLET ON INFANT FEEDING Free on application to the Wholesale Depot, 484 COLLINS ST., MELBOURNE. 


Cbc * « « 

merino. * 



in J1u$tralia. 

An exact reprint of a 

book pabliBhed in 1849, 

by the late Thomaa 



Price « « • 
One Sbilimg. 

If DOt obtainable at 
your bookaeller'i, eeod 
postal note or atamps 
for 1/3 to " Reriew of 
Reviews " Office, 167-9 
Queen-8t., Melbourne. 

For mutual adv»r»to«{e wnen you wit" to an advertiser please mention the Review of Reviews. 

July 20, Jp02. 



" Do you let your wife have her own way?" 
" Yes; it's only when she wants to have minr- 
that I object." 


Has Never Been Known to Fail to Cure Horses of 



Sebastopol. March 4, 19(V2. 
Dear Sirs, — We have used Solomon Solution for a 
number of years, for sore backs, girth galls, sore shoul- 
ders, greasv heels, and for all kinds of wounds and 
sprains in horses and cattle. We have great pleasure 
in recommending it. No stable should be without it. 

Yours trulv, 



Price 2 6 and 5 - jar. 

Obtainable of All Chemists, Storekeepers, Saddlers. 

Patentees and Sole jManufacturers 













Hudson's tiumenthol Jujubes, 


A. The Larynx, or 
orjtaii of voice. 

D. The Trachea, or 

C. The Bronxhial 
Ti BKS of a dis- 
sected luiijj. 
A LoB-: < f one of 
the lungs. 




Fop the Cure of 



and the 
Prevention of CONSUMPTION. 

Extract from Analyst's Re- 
port; Mr. W. A. Dixon, 
F.I.C., F.C.S., the PubUc 
Analyst of Sydney, reports, 
after exhaustive tests, as fol- 
lows: — " There is no doubt 
but that Eumenthol Jujubes 
have a wonderful effect in the 
destruction of bacteria, and 
preventing their growth." 

Their daily use preserves the teeth, and keeps the mouth 
in a sweet, healthy condition. 

IN TINS, 1/6, from 
the Proprietor, 

G. HUDSON, Chemist, 
Ipswich, Queensland, 

or post free on receipt of Stamps. Sydney Depot : 
5 and 7 Queen's Place. 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦^•t>»»»-» <>»»»»»♦»»♦»♦♦ » <>♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦< 

For mutual advantase when you write to an advertiser please mention the Refi«w of Revlaws 



July 20, igo2. 











For mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser oiease mention the Revlfcw of Reviews. 

July 20, igo2. 



• K 



■* Wliy arc you in lialt-iiiiuiniiiig': 
" ^Fv liiishiiiul is lialf di-ad." 




Completely coiKiuered, controlled and eradicated, without 
restraint, at patient's own home by "TACQUARU" SpeciKc 
Treatment (Turvey'8 method). See "Truth, "Nov. 2l8t. Tes- 
timonials received from ttficials of London Diocesan Branch 
of the Church of England Temperance Society. 

Write in confidence. 

The Medical Superintendent "TACQUARU " 

Co., 73 Amberlcy House, NorTolk Street, 

Strand, London, Eng^land. 







I/-, 2/6, 5/. 


A Simple Cold in a Day, 
A Neglected Cold in a Week, 
An Obstinate Catarrh in a Month. 

Literature of CATARRH and 
Treatment with each Bottle. 
For further information, or if imt ob- 
tainable locally, c. mmunicate witli 
RAFFAN, Carlton, Melbourne. 
All, Chemists. 

Government House, Melbourne, May 10, 1901. 

The L,ady-in-Waiting is desired by the Duchess of Corn- 
wall and York to thank J. H. Polglase for the present of a 
Down Quilt, which Her Royal Highness is pleased to accept. 


Why Shiver When You Can be Warm and Comfortable? 


Filled with best Kapok, in handsome Floral 

Sateens, Frilled and Ventilated. 

Measurement in Inches. 

72 X 60, 17/6 72 X y2, 20/- 

In very rich Floral Roman Satin Centres, Plush 
or Satin Borders, Frilled and Ventilated. 

72 X 60, 25/- 72 X 72, 30/- 

Best-quality French Floral Satin, Plain Satin or 
Plush Borders, Satin Frill, lined best Roman Satin. 

72 X 60, 50/- 72 X 72, 65/- 

Carriage Paid to any Railway Station in Victoria, 
or any Port in Australia. 

New Zealand, 5 Per Cent. Duty Additional. 



Only Manufacturer. Down Quilts Made to Order, By mentioning Name of^this Paper^ we send. Free of 

Ventilated, and Re-covered. 

Charge, a Cushion or Cosey. 

For mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention the Review of Reviews. 



July 20, 1^02. 


always keep a box of BEECHAM'S PILLS in the house, so that on the first sign 
of anything wrong, a timely dose may be administered, and further trouble and 
suffering averted. Nine-tenths of the BEECHAM S PILLS sold are purchased by 
those who have used them before, and have found them indispensable as A 

And then a^ain, 


do not require the publication of testimonials to maintain their tremendous 

Why? Because those who once try BEECHAM S PILLS are naturally impelled 
to inform others of the benefits derived therefrom, and in this way the confi- 
dence and esteem of the public have been lastingly secured. 

Sold in Boxes, Price Is. I^.d. (56 Pills) and 2s. 9d. (168 Pills). 


Immediate Relief 



The Union M'f'g <& Agency Co., TRPHinH'Q RFMFnV 

359-361 COLLINS STREET MF.LBOTTR.VK. ■ HKilw^JH ^ ■■^■Wl^l* I 

Permanent Cure 




Only 5/- 


With supply of 


0£:r]veicii>£: in 



Available in an Instant. 


^^OU inliale the vauor uf Soothing Pine Balsams, aud the iu&amed meubranes are at once 
^ relieved and soon completely cared. More than one hundred tlioosand persons nave been 
cured Ijy the use of Ur. Jeniit-rs iuiiaicr in England and Canada within the past five years. 
Highly rt-comniended by docl-'i-s and by medical publications. When once chargtd it is ready 
for instant use at any time witboat requiring heat or preparation of any kind, so that it it 
immediately available to ariest the terrible paro.\.ysms. A buttle of Soothing Inhalant is given 
with eacli appar.'itus. containing sofBlIient for about one month's use, and, if required, a 
further supply can be had at 1 - per bottle (posted 1 ■1\. When inhaled through the glass bulb, 
in accordance with the printed directions, a very pleasant and sooctung vapor, (absolutely 
free from any narcotic properties) is at once nroduced. resein-»"M.' iimoke in its appearance. 
This penetrates to every part of the inflamed air passages. Immediately allajring the pain and 
restoring the breathing as if by the touch of a magician. We have secured the exclusive 
right to sell this valuable apparatus throughout Australia and New_ Zealand, and in order 
to m ike its wonderful qualities quickly known, we offer it at the special price of 5;-, carriage 
and datv jiaid. You should order at once, as our present stock is limited, aud this advertise- 
ment will n jt appear again for some months. Send your order with remittance ia registered letter to 

The Union Manufacturing and Agency Company^ 








It will be posted without 

charge to any lady who 

sends her address to 

The Union M'f'g St 
Agency Coy,, 

359-361 COLLINS ST., 

For mutual suivanta^^ mhen yon write to an adv/ertis^r please mention the Review of Reviews. 

July 20, ipo2. 




" Mi8.s Flatte is a beautiful plaxer." 
" You mean she plays beautifully." 
"No; that's just what I don't mean." 




" PILA " is a Sure and Permanent Cure for Blind 
and Bleeding Piles. Sufferers should not fail to give 
this valuable remedy a trial. It has cured thousands 
of the very worst cases! Saved many a painful opera- 
tion, and given immediate relief from pain. " Pila " 
is taken internally, and is specially recommended to 
delicate constitutions. Price, 5s. per jar, postage la. 
extra. Send for " Dr. Ricord's Treatise on Piles," 
and testimonials free on receipt of stamped addressed 
envelope. If not obtainable at your chemist apply 

direct to Co. 



R. \V. Ikddomc & Co.. li:)4 Bourke Street. SOUTH 
AUSTRALIA— F. H. Paulding & Co., Druggists. Ade- 
laide. WESTERN AUSTRALIA— F. H. Faukling & 
Co., 341 Murra> Street. Perth. NEW SOUTH W ALES 
-1'. H. Faukling & Co.. 10 O'Connell Street. Sydney. 



^.^^y, wringers. 


Sewing Machines 

173 ^M\LU^W ST. 


Depot* »n .g^ia. 

SB UHC Pianos 
:cTRA Cycles 




for mutual advantage when you write to an advertleer please mention the Review et llevl( 



July 20, 1^02. 


Wrightville, Cobar, N.S.W., January 27, 1902. 

MR. S. A. PALMER, " Vitadatio," 184 Pitt-st., Sydney. 

Dear Sir, — It gives me great pleasure to, state to you, 
for the benefit of others who may be suffering as I 
was from that terrible complaint " Hydatids," my mir- 
aculous recovery. If there is anyone who is grateful 
to you and to VITADATIO, it is myself, and I feel that 
I cannot say too much in its praise. 

Some two years ago I was compelled to go to Sydney 
to be operated upon, and there an operation was per- 
formed in the Prince Alfred Hospital. The doctors 
removed a large lump of Hydatid disease from my siae. 
It was then supposed that I was cured, but after my 
return home to Emmaville where I Avas then living, 
the Hydatids appeared again, and my case Avas pro- 
nounced to be a very bad one. Two of the doctors 
there would not operate on me, because the Hydatids 
were on the left lung, but, thanks to the kindly interest 
of my uncle, Mr. John Light, of 68 Kippax-street, Syd- 
ney, who is a great friend of Mr. George Beyer, the 
popular lantern entertainer, I was induced to rive 
VITADATIO a trial. When Mr. Light told Mr. Beyer 
that I was sinking fast, and could not live very long, 
owing to Hydatids on the Jungs, Mr. Beyer replied that 
he was certam VITADATIO Avould cure me, but my 
uncle was very sceptical, and said that he had no faith 
in " these quack stuffs." Mr. Beyer insisted, however, 
that VITADATIO would save me, so my uncle called 
on you anu purchased three bottles of VITADATIO for 
me. I felt no result whatever from the first two 
bottles, but the third bottle made me feel so ill that 
I thought the end had come, so I went to the doctor 
again, who made a thorough examination, and he gave 
me some hope, as he thought the " mass " was moving. 
I continued taking the preparation, with the result that 
shortly afterwards I commenced to vomit up the Hy- 
datids, and after continuing with VITADATIO till I 
had taken seven bottles, I threw up the " cyst " in 
three pieces. I have put it in a bottle, and send it 
to you for you to examine. 

I wish to add that to-day I am stronger tban ever, 
and am able to follow my occupation of a miner, and 
in the interests of many sufferers like I used to be, I 
feel it is my duty to make this miraculous cure, which 
was effected by VITADATIO. widely known, and you 
are therefore at liberty to make whatever use of this 
letter you may wish. Yours truly, 


Wrightville, Cobar, N.S.W. 




Neston Cottage, Verdon-st.. Williamstown, 29/4/02. 

Dear Sir, — I have very great plea.sure in testifying to 
the value of VITADATIO as a cure for Hydatids. I 
was taken very ill toward the end of 1899, and found it 
necessary to call in a doctor. He, after carefully ex- 
amining me, stated that I had Hydatids, gave me 
medicines to take, which did me no good, and at last 
I was informed that I would have to undergo an opera- 
tion before I could be cured. This I was determined 
not to do, and decided to immediately commence a 
course of VITADATIO. I commenced it in Januarv 
1900, and I was then in a very weak and low .«tate. and 
I am very pleased to say that after taking it regular}*! 
for three months, I was completely cured. I have 
not taken any VITADATIO or other medicine -^inc 
April of the same year. I hope that others by reading 
this testimonial may profit by it, and I would say to those 
who take it that after taking eight bottles I felt much 
worse than I had done for some time, and was advised 
to discontinue its use, and again call in a doctor, but I 
am thankful that I continued with the VITADATIO. 
and found after the eigiith bottle, each one I Cook raaCe 
me feel much better, until at last 1 was completely 
cured. You may make use of this letter if you wir^h.— 
Yours truly. CATHARINE F. SMliH. 

Witnesses — 

Wm. D. Morgan, 132 Osborne-st.. Williamstown. 

Cas. G. Carter, Speight-st., Newport. 

A. Osmond, 18 Nelson-road. Newjjort. 



New Plymouth, October 11, 19<Jl. 

Sir, — Being a sufferer from Indigestion and Debility. 
I Avas recommended to try VITADATIO. Since taking 
a fcAV bottles I haA-e thoroughly regained my strength, 
and have mucu pleasure in forAvarding \-ou tlii.s testi- 
monial, c' BENNETT. 

Leech-st., NeAv Plymouth. 

For further particulars, S. A. PALMER, Head Office: Clarendon Street 

North, South Melbourne. 


Correspondence InArited. Write for Testimonials. 


F«r mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention the Review of ..eview». 

Jul\ _'0, IQ03. 



■ King."] 

liKAI.lvM i:.\ TKAOKDIN \1:N . 

Artif^t: " Vmi ilmi'l liml llii- |>i)itrint litV-liVf? 
H'ni, my < vii-. ii I iiuri'l> tukli- i> v. uli iny 
liiusli it lilll^Jll^I" 

(C'ontiniu'd on \mnv \.\v. I 

Our "Extra Special" Gun 

ThaCheapost and Best Double-barrelled 12 gau^* 

Central Fire Breech-loadinf! Qun In the World 


Double Bolt. Exiended Uib »nii Greener Cro8» Bolt Keinf ned 

Side grippioj Breech. Genuine Twist Barrels, Fnll CbuUe 

Lett. Modifled RiRht. 


TN presentinK ■ loll description of the " Eitr» Special Oiiii, 
*• we eaniet^tly wish to imprests upon you the fact that it isiho 
greateat barKaiu in doublebarrtlled breech loading eune ever 
•ilered. Kvery one o( iheai niPiRnincent weapons in guaran- 
teed to be abioliitely as deiicribed or money refunded. Never 
before in the history of the Run trade has each a perfect 
weapon been sold at ancb a marvelloiiBly low price. Many 
Inferior gnns have found ready purchaaeni at £10 each. In 
order to show our confidence in our " Extra Special " Gun, we 
will allow a 80 days' trial with each one. after which any 
purcliaeer who may be in the slii;ht'-st dcRret? dissalistied may 
return it to us and we will chierlully tefund the purchaie- 
moniy Our "Extra Special" 12 (;auKe double barrelled 
breechloader hat beat twiat barrels, solid heart walnut kiocIi 
IhiRhly poUsbedl with pistol grip and vnlcnnite heel pUte, 
■atent tore eud. low circular hammers nut of line of slRbi, beat 
□ ont action. rehonndinR locks.solid strllters. double bolt. enuine 
tamed extended rib and Greener erossboli. concaved side- 
(ripping breich, left barrel full choke. rlRht barrel modiHed 
ehoke. The streiictb and high flninh of the '• Extra Spe'.ial ' 
Onn permite of the nee of the most powerful .mokelens or 
black |unp«)wderB and full cbarRe of shot. makluK It a moat 
aerricmble nun for trap or tield shootlnR. We have an 
•normoui sale of the " Extra Special " Oun. and we challenge 
ihe world at the price. The Greener Croeabolt ihrouKli tlie 
extended rib largely enhaneet the value and atrength <>( the 
weapon, and the splendid finish and inudem ImproM luenta 
make It a marvel of cheapnees. No shooting man shnni.l be 
without an " Extra Special." In appearance and flniah 11 will 
•omi'aro favr.rabljr with gnnt costing SM. Each gun ii 
aecun ly packed and sent carriage paid to any a^ddresa in 
Anntracia or New Zealand on receipt of <4 7i. M. The cart- 

ridges >i»edaie Ii Rjiugi central fire of any make, and can be pur- 
chased from stori kefi'crs .v. rywhere. When ordering B»-nd re- 
inllian. < by cash m ri-t;ii.tere.l fetter, cheque P O O or V O i'>— 

(Eatah in Meii^nrne iKKj' 237 Coinm 8t., Melbourne 

Cl)c Southern Cro$$, 







14s. per annul 
post free. 

The ■■ Soulhtrii t'ros.s" is an t \iiii- 
gelieal paper, which belongs to no one 
aenoniination, but represents the j^tat 
interests winch belong to all ("hrr.stian 
Churches. Its contributors are minis- 
ters and members of all the evangelical 

The " Southern Cross" offers its 
readers articles collected over the whole 
range of cuirent religious literature, and 
representing the best thoughts of the 
best thinkers of very school. It is thus 
a hudt'et of the best and most stimula- 
ting Christian literature of the day, and 
supplies exactly the reading which every 
-Minister, every .Sunday-scliool teacher, 
and every Christian parent needs. It 
irives its readers pure fiction; the ablest 

iiiKuiiicnts in defence of Christian truth; 
" i';ipers for \'oung Men;" "For Chris- 
tian Workers;" "For the Sick-room;" 
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< 'hildren." Fvery movement affecting 
Christianity in any country is studied 
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T. SHAW FITCHETT, Publisher, J 69 Queen Street, Melbourne. 

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July 20, igo2. 




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Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A. 



History of the Month 

The Humour of the Month 

Correspondence Department . 

History of the Month in Caricature 

The King of a Crowned Republic 

By W. H. Fitchett, B.A., LL.D. 

In Search of a Federal Capital 

By J. W. Kirwan, M.P. 

The Book of the Month 

The Swan-Song of Mr. Spencer 

Some Notable Books 


... 19 

... 23 
... 30 

... 33 

... 3S 

... 45 

Character Sketch: 

Mr. G. F. Watts. R.A 

By W. T. Stead. 

Science of the Month 

Leading Articles in the Reviews: 

The West Indian Disaster . . 

Rhodes Reflected in Many Minds 

■■ In the Grip of the Brigands " . . 
Prince Henry's American Impressions . . 

Mysteries of Life and ]VIind 

A "Sketch of John D. Rockefeller . . ^. 
Lord Kelvin as He Appears to a Fellow-Scientist 
Holiday Schools and Playgrounds . . 

The Men of the •' Time's •' 

The Russian Awakening 
In Praise of the Chinese 
Japan's Financial System . . 
Woman and Her Sphere 
The Pan-Germanic Movement 

French Remounts . . 

The Need for a Zollverein . . 

The Polish Problem in Prussia 

The Shipping Combine 




Leading Articles in the Reviews (continued): pag 

The Amazing Mr. Seddon . . 

After the War 

American Captains of. Industry 

A Benevolent Despotism in South Carolina 

Irrigation in Australia.. 

Life and Death . . 

America's Public U^ntidiness 

The ChinaWar of 1901 

A Century's Loss in Gambling 

The King as a Leader of Society 

The Revie-ws Rcvie-wed : 

The National Review . . 

The Nineteenth Century 

The Contemporary Review 

The Westminster Review 

The Engineering Magazine 

The Fortnightly Review 

The New Liberal Review 

The Empire Review . . 

The Monthly Review . . 

Blackwood's Magazine. . 

The Pall Mall Magazine 

Harper's Magazine 

The Century 

The American Review of Reviews 

Scribner's Magazine . . 

The W^orld's Work .. 

McClure's Magazine . . 

The Atlantic Monthly 

Everybody's Magazine.. 

Lippincott's Magazine.. 

Munsey's Magazine 

Sandow's . . 

The Cosmopolitan 

Foreign Reviews — 

The Nouvelle Revue 

Tlie Revue des Deux Mondes 

The Revue de Paris 

Business Department: 

The Financial History of the Month -.. ... 1<)3 

[Editor's Note. — Owing to the inclusion of special 
matter at the last moment, before going to press, the 
folios of the magazine may differ from some of tho^^e 
given in the contents above.] 





Edhor, "Review of Reviews for Australasia." 



Editor, English " Review ol Reviews," 


American Monthly Review of Reviews." 


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July 20, ipo2. 






- ^y 


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Mar mutual atfvanUc* when you wrlta «e an advartlaer elaaaa mantlen tha Ravlcw of Revrawa. 

MR. G. F. WATTS, R.A. 
(Photographed on May 22, 1902, by Mi-. E. H. Mills, for the " Review of Reviews.") 




Editor: W. H. Fitchett, B.A., LL.D. Manager: T. Shaw Fitchett. 

Annual Subscription to all Colonies (except Queensland), 8s. 6d. Queensland, los. 6d„ 

Vol. XXI. No. r. 

JULY 20, 1902. 

Price, Ninepence. 


On Tuesday night, June 24, al! 
, ^. , Australasia went to bed to dream 

Tragical . ^ ^. , 

Eeiipse ! 01 the comino^ Coronation ; and 
very golden dreams, no doubt, they 
were ! There was to be a universal holiday : 
the cities were to break into a many- 
coloured foam of flags ; life was tem- 
porarily to be resolved into processions, feasts, 
levees, orations. The whole empire was to 
break, Hke a blossoming aloe, into rejoicing 
splendour over the great event in London. 
And, lo ! at a breath, it all vanished ! The late 
editions of the daily papers on Wednesday 
morning reported that the King was "ill ;" by 
noon the illness was known to be " serious." It 
was appendicitis in a malignant form ; an 
operation had already been performed ; a se- 
cond was imminent ! Never before in history 
was a change so unexpected and so dramatic ! 
A breath blowing from those dim realms where 
death dwells had passed over the empire. For 
the King himself the surgeon's knife took the 
place of the anointing hand of the priest : the 
operating-table was substituted for the Chair 
of Homage ; the hushed silence of the sick- 
room for the great Abbey, with its chanting 
choir and rejoicing multitudes. And the hush 
and shadow of that sick-chamber in London 
spread like a swift eclipse over the whole em- 
pire. Great intercession services in the 
churches took everywhere the place of feasts 
and processions. 

This sudden and dramatic arrest in 
the great Coronation, which, at the 
moment, held the breathless atten- 
tion of the world, will long be re- 
membered as an illustration of the irony that 
nms like some puzzling thread through human 

The Irony 

of Human 


life. It is a text on which moralists yet un- 
born will preach homilies enforcing that old, 
yet ever new, truth, " Vanitas vanitatum " ! 
Perhaps the most frequently quoted bit of 
poetry in English literature, for a few days, at 
least, Avas Shirley's fine, but sombre, poem — 

The glories of our blood and State 
Are shadows, not substantial things. 

But the whole event was the occasion of a very 
remarkable expression both of loyal sentiment 
and of deep religious feeling. The meetings 
for intercession in the churches were crowded ; 
the sympathy with the monarch whose life, at 
its most golden moment, had thvis suddenly 
fallen into eclipse, was both deep and universal. 
The King's illness, coming with such dramatic 
suddenness, and at such a dramatic moment, 
was that "one touch of nature which makes the 
whole world kin." It certainly thrilled all 
Australasia, as it did the empire at large, with 
a deep and common sentiment. 

Much decorous prose, with almost 
The a larger amount of more or less 
Pathos of It (distressing poetry, has been ex- 
pended on the King's illness : but 
r.erhaps the most effective lines which have 
made their appearance are some verses, headed 
" In Westminster Abbey," by "Oriel," which 
were published in the Melbourne "Argus" : — 


At dawn the bannered Empire wakes; 

The !Morning Star of Hope looks down. 
And swift the sun's broad radiance breaks 

On plume and pennon, cross and crown. 
On tempered sword-blade gleaming bright. 

On priestly vestment donned too soon. 
On gems that flash with rival light — 

But where is all the pomp at noon? 


July 20, IQ02. 

Lo, in the storied fane, where lie 

The olden rulers of the land, 
Rehearsing Hallelujahs high 

The white-robed priests and singers stand. 
But hush! What mean those sudden sobs? 

No more the Hallelujah rings; 
A Litany of sorrow throbs 

Among the tombs of vanished Kings. 

From Britain's stricken King is rent 

The jewelled robe and orb of gold; 
Yet still for nobler ornament 

His new regalia he doth hold. 
The pain racked brow no diadem 

Of ruby or of sapphire wears. 
But, fairer far than gold or gem, 

This crown — a loving people's prayers. 

And there, when Death can pomp defy, 

And where, forgetting earthly pride, , 
riantagenet and player lie. 

And Kings and poets side by side, 
A mighty multitude in grief, 

Foregathering on spirit wings, 
For mercy and a King's relief 

Implore the puissant King of Kings. 

And hark! The unaccustomed feet 

From bush and prairie, range and isle. 
By mystic bands drawn thither, meet 

Within th? Empire's heart awhile. 
Where prayers these thousand years liave soared — 

And well those prayers have answered been— 
The supplication deep is poured 

For Britain's King and Britain's Queen. 
And, though the words are blent with sighs. 

The world that listens ».far aWay 
Can hear a nation's prayer uprise, 

" Arm that smites, forbear to slay." 

A Study of the cablegrams shows 
Official with what severe economy of truth 
Fictions the news about a -royal illness is 
reported to the world. A cable- 
gram dated " London, June 20," reports that 
" His Majesty, who has been suffering from a 
slight attack of lumbago, continues to im- 
prove.'" On June 23 a cablegram runs : "The 
King is greatly benefited bv his rest at 
Windsor Castle, following on his recent attack 
of lumbago." Then comes a cablegram, dated 
London, June 24. reporting that " the King 
had arrived in London from Windsor Castle 
and was lookins" well, and gave a great dinner- 
r)arty at Buckingham Palace in the evening ' 
— a full list of semi-royal ^lests being cabled 
But the " lumbago" was a pure medical fiction 
The moment had come when the truth — or at 
least the main portion of it — had to be told 
and a cablegram which left London on " June 
24, at 12.55 p.m.," made its appearance on the 
same page with the report of the royal dinner- 
party. It announced the real nature of the 
Kings's illness ; reported that one operation had 
already been performed, that another was ne- 
cessary, and that the Coronation was indefi- 
nitely postponed! There is. fortunatelv. no 
room to doubt the entire frankness of the later 

cableorams which reported that the King was 
out of danger ; but it was plain that he had been 
at the very touch of death at the very moment 
when he was reported to be merely suffer- 
ing from " lumbago." And the public has 
had a striking lesson as to the unreliability of 
official bulletins. Where the life of a King is 
concerned, bulletins — medical and official — 
may be regarded as mere experiments in con- 
venient fiction. 

Lord Hopetoun, to the universal 
Lord regret of Australia, has laid down 
Hopetoun his great office, and is on the point 
of sailing for England. The Com- 
monwealth may have Governors as able and as 
wise as Lord Hopetoun; but it is scarcely 
likelv to have one soon with his magic power 
of touching popular feeling. Lord Hopetoun 
has manv distinctions. He has high rank, 
borne modestly ; he has great wealth, which he 
uses generously ; he has a sense of duty of the 
old heroic sort ; and he has a faith in the empire 
generally, and in Australia in particular, which 
belongs to the new imperialism. The secret 
of his popular charm, however, lies in his 
quick, generous, and eag^er sympathy. He has 
the insig-ht which only sympathy g^ives, and 
the tact which only sympathy creates. It is 
curious to reflect that Lord Hopetoun's very 
virtues have cost him his great office in Aus- 
tralia. Had he been a colder and more sus- 
picious man. less quick in trusting the word of 
his Prime Minister, and content with an hos- 
pitality less g-enerous, he would still be the Go- 
vernor-General of the Commonwealth ! Perhaps 
the true account of the matter is to sav that 
Lord Hopetoun was too quick and Mr. Barton 
too slow. Lord Hopetoun acted on the* verbal 
arrangement that he was to carry out the social 
side of his great office on a certain scale ; and 
Mr. Barton loitered with his part of the ar- 
rangement — asking a grant from Parliament to 
recoup Lord Hopetoun. Mr. Barton can be 
energetic in spots ; but to loiter is his familiar 

At the present moment, the Corn- 
Lord monwealth is in search of a Gover- 
Tennyson nor-General, and the new appoint- 
ment will, under any conditions, be 
an experiment attended with some risks. The 
colonies on the whole have had a hapoy ex- 
perience in the matter of Governors. They do 
not know for how much a tactless and blun- 
dering Governor would count ! Lord Tenny- 
son is Acting-Governor-General, and he is a 
man not only of fine spirit and (yreat ability, 
but of cool judgment and flawless tact. He 


JULV 20, 1902. 


will discharge the duties of his great office with 
perfect efficiency and success. 


The colonial Premiers are amongst 
the most conspicuous and honoured 

Premiers ,, • t j ^ ^u 

in London figures in London at the present 
moment. The welcome England 
accords to the representative statesmen of the 
colonies has in it an element of real pride and 
affection which delights Australasia. Whether 
our statesmen, indeed, will emerge from the 
sea of banquets, orations, receptions, and 
honours in which they are plunged, with voices 
uncracked and digestion undestroyed, may 
almost be doubted. They are the guests of 
princes. Great cities contend with each other 
for their visits. They are set talking on every 
possible and impossible occasion, and the 
whole English press resolves itself into a 
sounding-board for their lightest utterances. 

At the moment we write, a veil of 
Imperial silcncc lics on the proceedings in 
Conference the Imperial Conference ; but what- 
ever may be the particular decisions 
reached by the Conference, the gathering itself 
is certain to have historic importance. The 

empire is really a great web of practically in- 
dependent States, held together, not by force — 
not even by formulated laws. Ties hold them 
together which are stronger than Acts of Par- 
liaftient. They are forces bred of kinship, of 
common political ideals, of common interests, 
of common perils and hopes. But it is certain 
that if the empire is to have a common policy, 
the responsible statesmen of the various pro- 
vinces which make up the empire must meet 
regularly, pending the arrival of some new 
constitution for the whole. 

Mr. Seddon plainly makes a much 
.. « ^^ more vivid impression on the im- 

Mr. Seddon p /-• r, ■ • i 

agmation of Great Bntam than any 
other colonial representative. He 
is interviewed incessantly, speaks on all pos- 
sible occasions and topics, and to every kind 
of audience, and is listened to with an eager, 
if half-amused, attention which is very striking. 
In South Africa, Mr. Seddon's oratory brought 
him into trouble, and one speech of his was 
censored out of existence. He made indiscreet 
use, it seems, of official information. The place 
any public man holds in popular regard may, 
in England, be measured by the diligence with 

Mr. C . Lower away. Seddon. 

John Bli.i. . Here, 1 say, what are you doing ? 

Mr Seddon. IVe're savtng you Jron> suicide. 

(" Westminster Gazette.") 


July 20, igo?. 

Late Premier of Western Australia. 
Died June 24. 

which he is turned to humorous use by the 
comic papers. And, judg-ed by this test, Mr. 
Seddon stands very hig-h indeed. He is cari- 
catured dilig-ently and on every side. If he 
chose to stay in Enj»-land, there is hardly a 
popular constituency but would gladly return 
him to Parliament. Even the journals which 
laug-h at Mr. Seddon respect him, and see the 
elements of serious strength in him. They 
realise that beneath Mr. Seddon's blunt, and 
apparently oflfhand, utterances is a cool, arti- 
culate, and stubbornly held policy which has 
to be reckoned with. 

The fact that Mr. Seddon is the 

Royal foremost and most popular of all 

Honours the colonial Premiers in London 

makes yet more curious the cir- 
cumstance that his name finds no place in the 
list of birthday honours. Knig-hthoods are 
flung broadcast over the empire ; Mr. Seddon's 
name alone remains unadorned. It cannot be 
that nothing- was offered him ; it must be that 
what was ofifered was, in Mr. Seddon's judg- 
ment, too little ; or that he deliberately chooses 
to remain untitled. Mr. Seddon is not a reti- 

cent man, and the secret, sooner or later, will 
leak out ; or perhaps be shouted out. Mean- 
while there is a general curiosity on the sub- 

The terrible drought which is still 
Precious lying ovcr areas larger than Euro- 
waters pean kingdoms is turning the pas- 
tures to mere dust and sla}'ing Aus- 
tralia's flocks in whole millions. One plain les- 
son the drought is teaching is the supreme ne- 
cessity to Australia of water conservation. We 
have a sufificient rainfall to banish droughts 
for ever. But the rainfall, for one thing-, is 
eccentric ; the great coastal range intercepting 
the water supply of the interior. And for 
another thing, the rain, when it has fallen, runs 
chiefly to waste. So, great schemes for ar- 
resting; the swift rivers flowing into the sea, 
and for storing their waters in vast artificial 
lakes, are floating in the heads of Australian 
statesmen. One Inter-State Commission is, 
with great diligence and scientific thoroug-h- 
ness, considering- the problem of how to turn 
the waters of the Murray upon the arid plains 
through which it flows, instead of permitting 
them to run to mere waste in the salt sea. Mr. 
O'Sullivan, the Minister for Works in New 
South Wales, g^ave the State Parliament a 
striking account of some of these schemes 
which are on foot: — 

The chief schemes under consideration were the Mur- 
ray and Murrumbidgee canal, to extend from Albury 
to Deniliquin, and from Narandera to Hay, embracing 
a tract of 20.000 square miles in area. The first work 
to be carried out would be the storage reservoirs, each 
estimated to cost £200,000. The northern Murray sys- 
tem of canals would be 171 miles long, the southern 
Murray system 290 miles, and the Murray canal system 
proper 306 miles, a total of about 767 miles. The cost 
of all the works would be, approximately. £1,000,000 
for the Murrumbidgee system, and £1,050,000 for the 
Murray system. On the Lachlan River the projects 
included a storage reservoir at Wyangola, to cost 
£200.000. On the Macquarie it was proposed to con- 
struct a large reservoir, at an estimated cost of £200,000. 
The proposed improvements to the Darling were more 
or less tentative, as the question of navigation inter- 
vened, but, broadly, the proposals were to divert the 
water into the great anabranch at Tal>^-aika Creek, and 
some other creeks where natural facilities for diversion 
existed. Schemes for a series of locks and weirs in the 
Darling had been proposed, and the expenditure was 
roughly estimated at from a million to two millions for 
the Bourke to Menindie length. 

Mr. O'Sullivan, it is to be noted, 
rmaghTl- !^^^ o"^ quality — that of audacious 
tion imagination — which is supposed to 
be the special gift of poets, but 
which is just as necessary to statesmen. He 
contributes an article to a Sydnev journal, in 
which he forecasts what Sydney will be a cen- 
tury hence. The vision which rises to Mr. 
O'Sullivan's eyes — " in a fine frenzy rolling- " 

Arvibw or Reviews, 
JCLY 20, 1902. 


— is nothing^ less than magnificent. By A.D. 
2000 he believes Sydney will be a city with a 
population of from 2,000,000 to 3.000,000 ; a 
gigantic entrepot of trade ; a city mightier and 
richer than Carthage or Venice ever was. And 
everything in the Sydney of to-day, he argues, 
should be planned with an eye to the mammoth 
city of to-morrow. The Pyrmont bridge, 
which has just been opened in Sydney, is. to 
Mr. O'Sullivan's vision, merely " the starting 
place of the high road to the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria." Tenders have been called for a gigantic 
bridge across Sydney Harbour connecting 
North Shore with the city ; it is a bridge 3,000 
ft. long, with a fairway of 1,200 ft. between the 
main piers ; the tenders range from one and a 
quarter t6 nearly eight millions sterling ! Mr. 
O'Sullivan would carry out this work simply 
as a contribution to the future of Sydney. 

, Mr. O'Sullivan's gaze wanders 
A Modest over the whole world in search of 
Request contributions to the adornment of 
Sydney ; and he has asked the trus- 
tees of the Rhodes estate to make a grant of 
iiOO,000 for the purpose of erecting a gigantic 
statue of "Australia facing the dawn." at the 
entrance of Sydney Harbour. Much mild 
satire is emptied on the head of Mr. O'Sullivan 
for the flight and courage of his imagination. 
The trouble is that our statesmen are usually 
"bankrupt of imagination. Mr. O'Sullivan mav 
easily be forgiven for having an excess — and 
in a crude form — of a quality at once so fine 
and so rare. 

A Dream ! 

|Lake Eyre 

One vast scheme for turning Cen- 
tral Australia into a garden was 
suggested many years ago. and 
has long haunted the Austra- 
lian imagination. It is to let the sea into 
the basin of Lake Eyre, and so turn the "Stony 
Desert" of Sturt into a sort of mimic Mediter- 
ranean. Professor Gregory, of Melbourne 
University, publishes in one of the Melbourne 
journals an interesting and scientific study of 
this great scheme. Lake Eyre is really an 
ancient seabed, and is much below the sea 
level. The centre of the Lake Eyre basin is 
39 ft. below the sea level, and it is only 260 
•miles from Port Augusta. The soil round the 
basin, Mr. Gregory says, is of exceptional 
richness; the atmosphere is bracing: the cli- 
mate has in it no taint of malaria. A canal to 
Poit Augusta would create an inland sea 80 
miles long by forty broad, and roughly cover- 
ing 2,000 square miles. 

But the cold engineering facts, 
alas ! are fatal to the scheme. It 
would be possible to fill the basin, 
but no art known to man could 
keep it full. The loss by evaporation from so 
vast an area of shallow water would amount 
to 7,000,000,000 gallons daily ; and it would 
need a channel 1,000 ft. wide and 10 ft. deep to 
repair that vast daily waste ! Translating the 
figures into hard coin the scheme would cost 
about as much as the present British national 
debt, and then it must fail. The 7,000,000,000 
gallons turned every twelve hours into mere 
vapour by the kiss of the. sun would leave the 
salt they held in solution behind them ; so the 
lake, in process of time, would solidify into one 
vast blister of mere salt, with an area of 2,000 
square miles ! The Lake Eyre scheme may be 
dismissed from human contemplation. 

The new Arbitration Court of New 
4.1.'"^^' ti"** South \\'ales has alreadv griven one 
Unions Striking judgment. The Aus- 
tralian \Vorkers' Union — the 
shearers' organisation — applied to the Court 
to cancel the registration of the Machine 
Shearers and Shed Employes' Union on the 

Bartletto, Photo, Perth.] 

'^m. JAMES, 

Who Succeeded Mr. Leake as Premier of 
Western Australia. 


July 20, 1002. 

<:;Touncl that there ouoht not to be two societies 
re2:istered for one trade. The real offence of 
the assailed union is that it represents a cave 
of Adullam in the labour camp. Mr. Justice 
Cohen rejected the appeal on the ground that 
the methods of the Australian Workers' 
Union, at some points, are contrary to public 
policy, and an interference with the personal 
liberty of its members. Every member of 
the Workers' Union is compelled to subscribe 
to the "Worker," the organ of that body : and 
that paper publishes black lists, etc. Under 
the rules of the Australian Workers' Union 
any member voting against the candidate ap- 
proved by the Union is fined £3. This, Mr. 
Justice Cohen held, was a tyrannical interfer- 
ence with the freedom of the franchise ; any- 
one, again, who had canvassed for non- 
unionists was put imder severe penalties ; any- 
one who took work under a shearing contrac- 
tor, or who was g^uilty of buying a shearing 
machine, was forbidden to become a member 
of the union — which practically means being 
forbidden employment — or was fined £3. 
These rules illustrate the despotic tendency 
of at least some labour organisations, and the 
Svdney Arbitration Court has rendered an un- 
fi)reseen service to the Labour party itself in 
sharply checking that tendency. 

The labour unions show an unwise 

Labour ingratitude for the service which 

Discontent ;\jj- Justice Cohen has rendered 

them; they even, for the moment, 
keenly resent it. Some sections of the Labour 
party hold the very crude opinion that it is the 
business of the various Wages Boards and 
Industrial Arbitration Courts that have been 
created always to gire a finding on the side of 
the men. When, by any chance, a decision is 
given against them, they lift their voice to 
heaven in mere angrv astonishment. This is 
the case in New Zealand, where the Painters' 
Union of Dunedin. having an award given 
against them, passed a resolution declaring 
that ■' the time had arrived when the workers 
of the colony should consider other methods 
than the use of the court to obtain justice." 
Rut if the Industrial Courts are to live, they 
must win public confidence ; and they can only 
do this by showing themselves impartial. And 
where a labour union, badly advised b>- its 
natural leaders, has passed some rule w'hich is 
in conflict both with natural justice and public 
policy, it is a genuine ser\'ice to the cause of 
labour itself to have such a blunder judicially 
rebuked. For any political party that puts 
itself in conflict with the conscience and the 

g-ood sense of the community at large is 
doomed to perish. 

^Meanwhile, the Labour party, if in 
Labour numbers the smallest, in energy 
Politics and courag"e is the most formidable 

of the political parties which exist 
in Australasia. Its crusade is planned on a 
great scale, and carried out with tireless in- 
dustry. The party, it is true, is apt to break 
up into quarrelling sections : and there is al- 
ways a smouldering jealousy betwixt the 
labour representatives who are already in the 
various Parliaments and the other labour 
leaders who want to get there. But the party, as 
awhole,is faithful to two g-eneral objects: First 
to capture the Parliaments ; and second, to use 
the Parliaments in carrying out great experi- 
ments in Jiinly disg-uised socialism. In the 
Australian Commonwealth the immediate and 
pressing need of the party is to transfer indus- 
trial legislation to the Federal Parliament, and 
so bring the six States who form the Common- 
wealth under a common industrial law. A 
deputation waited on Mr. Deakin, the Acting-- 
Federal Premier, asking for the introduction 
of a Bill for this object. Mr. Deakin was 
sympathetic ; but the establishment of an in- 
dustrial law for the whole Australian Com- 
monwealth is not within measurable distance. 
It can only be done by the consent of the 
States ; and each State is jealous of its own 
liberty, and will not lig^htly give up the privi- 
lege of determining its own industrial policy. 
The States, it may be added, are, for the mo- 
ment, at least, half regretting- the scale of the 
powers which they have transferred to the 
Federal House : they are not at all in the mood 
to enlarge those powers. 

The law under which all Kanakas 
A are to be deported from Queens- 

Hard Case \2^Y\(\ within a given period involves 

some curious results. A labour 
schooner has been chartered to carry back 
some 300 time-expired Kanakas ; but it is not 
seldom found impossible to land such Kanakas 
on their native islands without peril to their 
lives. In such a case the Kanakas, under the 
old law, re-engaged themselves and returned 
to Queensland for a new term of service. Lender 
Federal law that is impossible, and the cap- 
tain of the labour schooner must " dump " his 
300 Kanakas down somewhere, even if he has 
to jettison them in shallow water, or tumble 
them out on the beach under the arrows and 
spears of hostile tribes. ^Ir. Philp argues that 
this policy mav be legal, but it is inhuman. 
He has notified all Kanakas that thev will not 

Review of Rivifavs, 

.I'l.v '20. 1902. 


be allowed to return to Queensland, and. like 
sensible men, thev refuse to embark. But this 
brings Queensland into conflict with Federal 
law at another point. The Kanakas must be 
cleared out of Queensland within a g-iven time, 
even if the " Noyades " of the French Revolu- 
tion have to be revived for their benefit, and 
thev are drowned in batches off the Queens- 
land coast. Mr. Philp invites Mr. Deakin to 
devise " a way out of the situation which 
leaves no alternative between a breach of Fed- 
eral law and the cruel treatment of unofTendincr 
aliens." Mr. Deakin arg-ues with cheerful 
lo.s^ic that no responsibility lies on him to do 
anvthing-. Queensland must settle the dispute 
betwixt Federal law and the eternal law of 
humanitv as best it can. Meanwhile the labour 
ship, with its freight of 300 Kanakas, is waiting 
for a solution to arrive from some quarter. 

It is clear from the cablegrams that 

Naval there is to be no change of principle 

Defence [^ the naval policy of Australasia. 

We are to contribute a little larger 
sum. perhaps, to the Imperial Treasury, and 
the Admiralty is to send into Australian waters 
a better tvpe' of ships : but we are still to con- 
tribute, not men, but cash, to the sea defence of 
our own shores. Mr. Barton alone, according 
to the cablegrams, spoke a word on "behalf of 
a manlier policy — the policy of creating the 
germ of a colonial navy; or, as it might be 
better described, giving Australians a direct 
share in their own naval defence. This policy, 
however, was rejected bv the Admiraltv. be- 
cause it desires nothing original or independent 
in the navy ; and by the other colonial Premiers 
®n the ground of cost. Warships, it is argued, 
represent vast sums of money; they would 
soon become obsolete. If we had to build, or 
buy, our own ships, the burden w^ould be too 
heavy for us. etc. But why should not Eng- 
land supply the ships, and Australia the men 
and ofificers? If we are to be a sea power — 
and that our future lies on the sea no one can 
doubt — we ought to give the sea instinct in 
our blood some chance of expressing itself. 
A better policy must come sooner or later ; it 
is a misfortune that it is so long deferred. 

Great books are sometimes written 
strange with a surprising economy of 
Ignorance knowledge. It is often suspected 
that the familiar anecdotes which 
illustrate British ignorance of Australian geo- 
graphy are pure inventions ; but somebody has 
unearthed a passage in a " History of Eng- 
land," issued by one of the leading publishing 
houses of Great Britain, which leaves all cur- 

rent anecdotes of this kind completely bank- 
rupt. The writer is explaining how the move- 
ment for Federation suddenly took a scale so 
surprising. He says : — 

One important factor was overlooked. The Aus- 
tralian Natives, of whom there are some 20,000 in Vic- 
toria, -ware, solid -for federation. It was a curious de- 
mocratic illustration; an effete aboriginal community, 
making its almost foreign voice heard in the babel of 
the newer speech that dominated the country. 

Here is a respectable English historian, and 
a more than respectable English publishing 
house, and both writer and publisher are per- 
suaded that the Australian Natives' Associa- 
tion is a mere gathering of aboriginals of 
ebonv colour and unintelligible speech, armed 
with boomerangs and adorned with blankets 
and red ochre ! We may well sometimes sus- 
pect British criticism when British knowledge 
— in patches, at least— is of such amazingly 
thin quality. 

Australasia is rich in what may be 
Brunton called pocts of the third class ;writ- 
stephens gj-s with an almost fatal facility in 

rhyme, and who have won an audi- 
ence almost beyond their deserts by the cir- 
cumstance that some gleam of the Australian 
landscape in their verse, some touch of the 
Australian character, or some aspect of Aus- 
tralian life, has given their poetry a sort of 
accidental freshness. But Brunton Stephens 
had a touch— if only a touch— of true genius, 
and his poems belong to literature. His long- 
est poem, " Convict Once," published in 1871, 
has an unfortunate title, an unpleasant plot, 
and a somewhat difficult measure. It lacks 
passion and cadence, and yet it is certamjy the 
most ambitious flight of verse which any Aus- 
tralian writer has ever attempted. Mr.' Stephens 
died in Brisbane on May 30. and his death 
certainly leaves the literature of Australasia 

LONDON, June 2, 1902. 

The The great event of last month wa.s 
Volcanic j^Qne of man's making, nor had it 
^Tn'^the"* anything to do with the progress 
West Indies of the world — save, perhaps, as a 
reminder of the frailness of the tenure upon 
which we are permitted to occupy this planet. 
The volcanic eruptions by which Mount 1 elee 
blotted out, in the twinkling of an eve, the 
town of St. Pierre and its 30,000 inhabitants, 
and bv which her sister. La Souflfrierc spread 
a pall' of ash and cinder over the island ot bt. 
Vincent revived the sombre and tragic memo- 



July 20, I()02. 

200 300 



Antigua I B«l 

Oj^ Guadeloupe (rr.l 

C A R I B B Z J\ V 

J) ^ ^ 


^Marbini^u* {'») 
.•JCia A 


S^Vmcent'j ^ 

• Bft.'. oarbados 



ries of Pompeii and Heixulaneum. But tiie 
narratives of survivors of St. Pierre recall even 
more vividly a yet earlier story than that of 
the pleasure cities of the Roman Empire. The 
captain of the Roddam, the only ship which 
escaped destruction in the harbour, tells how 
he had just anchored ofif St. Pierre at 8 o'clock 
in the mornin.^ of the 8th, when he saw '' a 

tremendous cloud of smoke glowing with live 
cinders rushing with- terrible rapidity over the 
town and port. The former in an instant was 
completely enveloped in a sheet of flame which 
rained fire on board the steamer." The patri- 
arch Abraham saw a similar sight when " the 
Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah 
brimstone and fire from the Lord out of 
heaven ; and He overthrew those cities, and all 
the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, 
and that which grew upon the ground. And 
Abraham looked toward Sodom and Gomor- 
rah, and toward all the land of the plain, and 
beheld, and lo ! the smoke of the land went up 
as the smoke of a furnace." " The town of St. 
Pierre," says the commander of the Suchet, 
" is a mere heap of smoking ruins." 

The great eruption took place on 
^*^^ . the morning of May 8, when '' St. 

Destruction „. '^ i^iJi. ju 

of St. Pierre Pierre was completely destroyed by 
a mass of fire which fell on it." But 
for a week before slight earthquakes had been 
felt in the Windward Isles, and for some days 
before Mount Pelee had given warning of her 
activity by showering great quantities of cin- 
ders over the island. On the 4th, St. Pierre 
was covered with ashes a quarter of an inch 
thick — a winding-sheet prepared against the 

Mount Pelee. Le Carbet. 


Rkview of Revikws, 
JiLY 20, 190-2. 




ST viniccNT 


(" Sphere.") 

day of her burial. On the 5th, a stream of 
burning- lava. 20 ft. hi,gh, rushed like a tidal 
wave of fire for five miles down the mountain 
into the sea, which recoiled for a hundred 
yards before the impact of the fiery flow, and 
then, returning:, flooded St. Pierre. The cables 
snapped. The mountain roared like a .s^iant 
in labour, belchin.s^ out smoke ming^led with 
flame, and the earth quaked and trembled ex- 
ceedinorly. On the 7th, the heavens, as if pro- 
voked by the rivalry of the subterranean fires, 
responded by an appalling- thunderstorm. On 
Thursday, the 8th, Ascension Day, when morn- 
ing broke, it seemed as if the storm had passed. 
The people w^ere g-oing to church at 8 o'clock 
in the morning, when suddenly the volcano 
blew up with a deafening report, and imme- 
diately afterwards a mass of fire, vast sheets of 
flame and glowing cinders descended upon St. 
Pierre, blotting the town out of existence in 
a moment. The English steamer Roddam, 
which had just anchored in the harbour, was 
the only vessel \vhich escaped. She had her 
steam still up ; she either slipped her anchor or 
the cable was broken by the shock ; her decks 
were covered with burning lava, and of a crew 
of twenty-seven only six escaped alive. Yet 
she made her escape, fleeing, as it were, in the 
dense darkness from the open mouth of hell. 
On the day before that tremendous explosion 
had wrecked the town of St. Pierre, the vol- 
cano LaSoufTriere. in the north of the island 
of St. Vincent, had been in active eruption. 
Fortunately, although the whole island has 
been converted into a cinder heap, the loss of 
life was much less than at IMartinique : onlv 
two thousand persons perished, but the island 
was ruined. Ten days later the volcanoes were 

again in active eruption. It is doubtful 
whether the islands may not have to be evacu- 
ated, abandoned to the fiery forces which in a 
single day converted g-ardens of tropical Ver- 
dure into a vast desert. • 

Since Krakatoa bleW' up, nearly 
Dies irae, twenty years ago, there has been 
Dies Ilia j-,Q such manifestation of the con- 
cealed energ-y of the fiery forces 
which lurk beneath the crust of the earth. It 
is suggested by the scientists who have been 
busy discussing the matter that the phenome- 
nal activity of the West Indian volcanoes is 
due to a slig-ht shrinking of the earth, which 
opened fissures through which the water of the 
sea made its way into the lake of ever-burning 
fire. The water was immediately converted 
into super-heated steam, the pressure of which 
increased till it forced a vent through the cra- 
ters of the Mount Pelee and La Souffriere, and 
then blew up the mountain which choked its 
egress. The appalling- nature of the catas- 
trophe, the absolute impotence of man in the 
presence of these elemental forces, subdues the 
confidence and appals the mind of the pigmies 
who spend an ephemeral existence on the sur- 
face of the planet which they imagine they con- 
trol. Such reminders are useful, althoug-h 
humbling, especially in the present day. For 
more than a thousand years the imagination 
of mankind was continually exercised by the 
contemplation of the day of the wrath of God : 

When shrivelling like a burning scroll 

The flaming heavens together roll. 

When louder yet and yet more dread. 

Shells the high trump that wakes the dead. 

Dies irse. dies ilia. 

Solvet sneclum in favilla. 



July 20, 1002. 

But in these latter times there is little conteni- 
jilation of the day of judgment, and we mere 
creatures of a day tend more and more to for- 
,i^et the frailty of our tenure of the world in 
which for a brief season we are permitted to 
jive, to love, and to die. 

The Such eruptions in the physical 
Thinness of ^Qj.|^ will be helpful if thev remind 

the Crust on , . •, • ^ i ^i" 4.1 • , 

Which we US that it IS not onlj- m the earth_s^ 
Walk crust that we are walking upon a 
very thin film, which is spread over fiery 
forces capable, if unloosed, of devastating the 

used as the agent for resenting the unwelcome 
intrusion. It will be well if the parable of 
Alount Pelee is taken to heart in more ways 
than one. Everywhere beneath the surface 
glow inextinguishable fires, although for the 
most part they are hidden from view. 

The Dread From the crater of popular discon- 
of Political tent there arise in ordinary times 

-ctuak s 

but-filender wr.eaths.of smoke, and 
in 'Snci^H security men cultivate 
vineyards up to the very lips of the crater. In 
like manner sovereigns and statesmen, forget- 


world. How much morality would survive so 
simple a matter as the disuse of clothes ? How 
much sobriety the provision of free whiskey? 
As it is in the sphere of morals, so it is in that 
of politics. The situation in China is not by 
any means unlike that in Martinique. For the 
moment the Boxer crater has ceased to erupt, 
but any attempt on the part of the Western 
world, whether in the interests of commerce or 
of Christianity, to interfere with the vast 
human reservoir of 300,000,000 Chinamen 
would produce very much the same effect as 
the intrusion of the sea into the lake of molten 
lava. Instead of extinguishing the central 
f:re, the water, itself converted into steam, is 

ful of the eruptions from beneath, of which the 
French Revolution is the memorable example, 
go on constructing their plans and policies as 
if the existing systems would be eternal. But 
deep in their hearts all men know that what 
has been may be, and there is not a monarch 
in Europe who does not feel uneasy when he 
hears the stirring of popular discontent. Re- 
volution is to the existing order as an earth- 
quake, but social revolution is as the eruption 
of a volcano. It is this which causes so many 
to regard with profound uneasiness the con- 
fused insurrectionary movement which appears 
to have broken out among the peasantry in 
South-eastern Russia. It mav come to no- 

j«B.T m, IMS. 


dnD^. as simiLar n^oTerrenis bare done be- 
fore; but the pressure ot dnstress is ha^d a^' ' 
keen, and a jacquerie is TCfj afit: to sprei ^ 
As loo^^ as tbe troops can be depended np: -- 
order can be re-estaUi^ied, as it -sras is War- 
saw, but fjhere are persasSent twsmxms as ' 
the idnctanoe of some df tbe amned peasar. : r 
fo slioot down idiesr broibeis, and if once 
became general the end >: i^" ■ 
seem to be 2^ b?T"? 


In Morocoo, as in Otttpi, "we 
' rtaoaa ok onar ecooo- 

_- ' imiBr r at 0®£ tTUlkC 

2S a oossMe spfoere lor 


M. S 

in R L, 

IKE be 

: a 

" tr at- 


ever, -af mmda 3ess 

re.2.'.:?es inore vinifflv 
r. Hei? 

r. is Max -, -: 

-n.g ■eTcnls ii 
calculated : 

rh^ V, 

es. Ansrra and Rnsssa hare c-i^coe : 

;----"- - - - " ~ in case " ' ' 

■ - ^ - _:rca or A1._L__ ... 

' ~ ■ ■ -I- ai>d thai Rnssia ai 



,j:;_ .. _ . 


Ma.) can 

sran ding 

riane beJsts- 

r gowns' weE. 

-■e re- 

'^ : "? agr a'T^ T 


Tsar-- Socii. ai kastr is -tioe -^cffj tha"- 35 -jEE- 
gentlj arcnlated in iJje insnrrecQcciarT ^£5- 
tridts oi dae Balkans. 

Tlae MacedosBaaits. of ■a-baretrr 

''^^ *■'"*'"' natScmaar^ -^r:^ tive adrent dt 
w,a.e^€^.a.- a Ati^rria ti- ■ .: .-oi anid abb'TtrreDce. 
Hiev rrefer even a C'r«ndnt:arjce ot 
-"•--■ - , - "- - .- _ ~ -- .-^ tberr frrxs^ 

"^ : : ; . Tbe dread 

. . .- — : ' er BolgfarraTtSs 

- 'a- A :.i- .-.->. Greets^ Roc- ■?, re Serb? — of 

- • — - ": - - ^e -cc peace. 

•-Tif V :'';■: v^ ^ - : : t*rt?vDte as 

- ; - . - - -jce a? i« Tjecessarr t-d indace •fljc 

" ■ ■ ~ ■ ■ ^ ^"' -"- f Ttrrk ro esrabEsii 

: .- ^ - : -- "t "arhSci "was re- 

Ger- c ■ iSSo br Sie InTemalJDoal Gobb- 

■'"":"- ?errre the 2.r«p5cai30o :€ 

::-i- :._ . -•■:-:' '-.e Treatr of BerHa. 

:."•-- V - - i: £ gitalin p- fertile 

or^roc «5anire tJicv naaT ipirecxpitare their aaa- 



July 20, 1902. 

(Died May 25.) 

nexation by Austria and the final partition of 
the Balkan Peninsula between the two great 
Eastern Empires. Threatened men live long-; 
an insurrection which is always pendin.g may 
come off some day, and when it does, more 
unlikely events have happened than a peace- 
ful partition of the Balkans which would brino^ 
the Austrian and Russian outposts to the 
^gean Sea. 

The While such old-time antagonists as 
Austria- Austria and Russia and France and 
Hungrarian j^^iy^ tl,g Triple Alliance and the 
Dual Alliance seem to be drawing 
together. exchanging compliments and 
making mutually satisfactory agreements, 
Austria and Hungary appear to be drifting 
apart. The month of May has been largely 
occupied with more or less embittered discus- 
sions concerning the renewal of the Customs 
Union. Tt will be odd if the Zollverein of the 
Empire-Kingdom should be abandoned at the 
moment when the British Empire is discussing 
the adoption of a similar arrangement. 

The attempt of the Socialists in 

The strike Belgium to get rid of the plural 

in Politics .^Q|.g ^^^ introduce universal suf- 

. frage pure and simple by the 

ancient expedient of a universal strike was a 

failure. After some rioting and much sufTer- 

ing the strike was called ofT by the Socialist 

leaders. The election which immediatelv fol- 


lowed for one-half of the seats in the Lower 
House showed that the firm attitude of the 
Clerical ]^Iinistry in power had not impaired 
their iiold upon the electorate. The Clericals 
gained several seats, thereby increasing the 
Ministerial majority. On the other hand, the 
experiment of a general strike for universal 
suffrage has been successful in Sweden. The 
strikers, who appear to have behaved with ad- 
mirable discipline, and exemplary moderation, 
kept the strike up until their demands were 
practically conceded. As we may some day 
see the same expedient tried in Great Britain, 
we shall watch the spread of the use of the 
strike in politics with interest and curiosity. 

A step After thirty years of "resolute 
Upward in government '" in the provinces 
w rested from France in 1871, the 
Kaiser has come to the conclusion 
that the process of incorporation has made 
such satisfactory progress that he can safely 
dispense with the arbitrary power which has 
hitherto been vested in the ruler of the Reichs- 
land. The repeal of the Dictatorship Clause 
would seem to indicate a genuine desire on the 
part of the German Government to dispense 
with the exceptional ultra-legal power which 
some strange Englishmen seem to think the 
best security for loyaltv — as if the right to 
break the law at the discretion of the ruler 
could ever be other than a constant provoca- 
tion to the ruled to set the law at defiance. The 
abolition of the right of the Stadtholder to 
override the law in Elsass-Lothringen will pro- 
bably do more to postpone the reappearance 
of Alsace and Lorraine on the map of France 
than the creation of a new army corps. 

The French Xhe French General Election re- 
Eiecti''^n suited in a brilliant, even a decisive 
-and victory, for the Republican Minis- 
Afterwards terialists, who returned from the 
country with a majority of about ninety. As 
the immediate result, M. Waldeck-Rousseau 
announced his intention to retire. He would 
have had to reconstitute his ATinistry in any 
case, and if he met the Chamber as Premier 
he would be out of the running for the Presi- 
dency when M. Loubet's term of office ex- 
pires. M. Bourgeois, who ought to have suc- 
ceeded M. Waldeck-Rousseau, has preferred 
the Presidency of the Chamber — replacing M. 
Deschanel. M. Delcasse, it is understood, 
will remain at the Foreign Oflfice. He has 
been sin,gularly successful, and his last trip 
to St. Petersburg, in company with President 
Loubet, was the latest, although not the last, 

Kkview of Kevikws, 
July 20, 1902. 



propitious incident in his remarkable career. 
The only thin^ that seems certain about the 
next Premier is that he will not have as long 
or as prosperous a term of office as his pre- 

The France has now almost regained, if 
Emergrence indeed it has not entirely regained, 
**^ the commanding position which it 
enjoyed in the palmy days of the 
Monarchy and the Empire. Until the other 
day, when men talked of Europe they thought 
always first of Berlin. To-day there are at 
least as many who think first of Paris. This 
change has been brought about, first, by the 
alliance with Russia; but that would have 
failed to accomplish much were it not for the 
studious moderation, cool commonsense. and 
good neighbourliness of M. Delcasse. The 
French Foreign Minister has been suave, con- 
ciliatory, good-tempered, and he always kept 
a civil tongue in his head. The emergence of 
France as once more the first Power in Europe 
is a welcome reminder that even in diplomatic 
business. " godliness has the promise of the 
life that now is as well as that which is to 
come." Alas! that it should need such les- 
sons as Sedan, Metz, and Paris to inculcate 
the elementary duty of keeping a civil tongue 
in one's head and walking soberly and quietly 
among our fellow-men. 

The Boy King was formally in- 

3q 7^**^ j^ stalled on the uneasy throne of 

Spain Spain last month. There was no 

coronation, but the youthful mon- 
arch was enthroned and took the oath to the 
Constitution, which has seldom prevented its 
violation. His mother, the Queen Regent, 
who has filled an arduous post with signal 
courage and tact, made way for her son with 
charming grace, and so far as ceremonial and 
pageantrs^ went, the new reign began auspici- 
ously enough. But, unfortunatelv, they go 
such a very little way, even in Spain, which is 
herself little more than a pageant. The new 
monarch is enjoying the first delights of re- 
sponsibility in the shape of a Ministerial crisis. 
It is reported that the boy is anti-Clerical, and 
intends to teach the priests to keep their place. 
But of those who set out to break the power 
of priests it may be said, as of those kings who 
in England set themselves to break the power 
of Parliaments, it is usually the breakers who 
are broken in the end. The most important 
question just now is what General Weyler 
thinks. On that point no one seems to be able 
to speak with authority. 


The A very thorny and difficult ques- 
S.Giri Queen tion which might have troubled the 
'T" H 1 1 es P^^^^ o^ nations threatened Europe 
last month. If Queen Wilhelmina 
had died in childbed, the question of the Dutch 
succession would have given the keepers of the 
public peace many an anxious moment. 
Fortunately, she recovered from the typhoid 
fever, which brought on premature confine- 
ment, and, although she is childless, she is still 
young. ;■ 




in Russia. 

The- capacity to bear children is 
more important to the State than 
the capacity to bear arms. This 
is true not only in the case of 
queens, but in that of peasants. The Prussian 
Government is at this moment baffled by the 
fecundity of the Polish women. In vain do 
Prussian statesmen use their " globular mil- 
lions," to use Mr. Rhodes' phrase, in order to 
Germanise Prussian Poland. Count von 

King Alfonso XIII. on his way to the Cathedral, 
after taking the Oath of the Constitution. 



July 20, igo2. 























^k' '^^H 

■i.- J 



(Died May 24.) 

Bulow put the case in quaint, vivid fashion 

when he told the " Fig'aro " interviewer : — 

If in this park I were to put ten hares and five rab- 
bits, next year I should have fifteen hares ar.d 100 
rabbits. It is against such a phenomenon that we mean 
to defend in Poland National Unity. 

The Poles are the rabbits, the Germans the 
hares. Unless Count von Bulow can make 
the hares breed as rapidly as the rabbits, his 
defence will be as hopeless a failure as, let us 
say, the hopes of some Imperialists that they 
can Angflicise South Africa by assisted emigra- 
tion. For on the veldt the Boers are the rab- 
bits and the Britons are the hares. 

" The hand that rocks the cradle 
rules the world " is a trite saying. 
What is more true is that the 
the Cradle woman who fills the cradle rules 
the world. And one of the most conspicuous 
and sinister facts which we have got to face 
is that in the United States, in Canada, and in 
Australia, the women of our race are approxi- 
mating to the hare rather than to the rabbit. 
In the United States this is the more serious 
because of the immense influx of foreign im.- 
migrants of the rabbit class. Last .year pro- 
mises to be a record year for em.igration, but 
the immense majority of those who land at 
Castle Garden come from Southern and East- 
ern Europe. The Ward leader and the public 
school have easilv succeeded in converting the 
Teuton and the Scandinavian into the English- 


speaking American citizen. But these fast- 
incoming hordes, vaster than the hosts who 
followed Attila — will the combined double- 
barrelled patent digesters of Tammany and the 
public school ever work them into the body 
politic? Not if the old stock forget the old 
command : " Be fruitful and multiply, and re- 
plenish the earth !" 

The good work of sweethearting 
Making Up Unclc Sam.gocs rnerrily on. Last 
Uncle Sam month distinguished Frenchmen 

went in deputation to Washington 
to witness the unveiling of the statue of 
Marshall Rochambeau, whose fame has been 
obscured by the reputation of Lafayette. Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, in welcoming the deputation, 
said many pretty things about American grati- 
tude to France. Not to be outdone the Kaiser 
has suddenly remembered that " My ancestor 
Frederick the Great maintained a friendly atti- 
tude towards the young American Republic 
during the course of her formation. . . . The 
example set to me by the great King I intend 
to follow." In token whereof he announced 
his intention to present a bronze statue of 
Frederick, " to be erected in Washington in a 
place which you will kindly choose." Presi- 
dent Roosevelt welcomed the promised gift 
with efifusion, and the statue of " one of the 
greatest men of all time " will find an honoured 
place in the capital of the Republic, as '' a 
hopeful sign to all mankind that the American 
and German people are working together in 
a sense of happy friendship." All this is quite 
idyllic. Would that some patriotic American 
would give us a statue of Washington, or that 
King Edward VII., as an act of expiation, 
would offer the Americans '"statues of Burke 
and of Chatham. But John Bull does not 
understand the art of sweethearting-. 

President Roosevelt has done two 
President notable things which may cost him 
Roosevelt |-,jg re-election. He has angered 

the Trusts by his action against the 
proposed combination of the North-Westem 
railways and against the Meat Trust. And he 
has followed up his recognition of Booker 
Washington by a denunciation of the lynching 
of negroes which will probably bring down 
upon his head the fierce execration of a very 
numerous section of American citizens, who 
'believe that the blacks can only be kept in 
order by the terrorism of savage mobs eager 
to use torture and the stake in vindication of 
the superiority of the white-skin. It is true 
that the President only brought in the lynch- 
ing question in order to parry attacks made 

JKrvikw of Biviicws, 
Jdlt 20, 1902. 



^upon the Government for the abominable 
methods of barbarism adopted by some of their 
ofificers in the Philippines; but he did not 
palliate the crimes of the soldiery. 

ly,^. The work of reuniting^ the English- 

Pierpont speaking; race goes on apace, some- 

Morgran's ^yhat to the consternation of the 

Great Role ^^^-^^^ ^^^ ^^^ longer predominant 

partner. Mr. Pierpont Morgan, who deserves 
the benedictions of the Old World and the 
New, is diligently consolidating the business 
interests of the business men of both countries, 
and, like all benefactors, is being much abused 
for his pains. Yet it would be difficult to sug- 
gest any method by which the necessity for 
.a closer union between the Empire and the 
Republic could be better demonstrated than 
by the acquisition of these Atlantic liners, 
which, although owned and controlled by 
American owners, will nevertheless fly the 
British fllag and look for their protection to the 
British navy. Every one of these White Star 
liners is a floating bit of the United States of 
1:he English-speaking world. Owned by 
American capital and protected by the British 
flag, they represent the point of fusion between 
the Empire and the Republic. We are united 
on the high seas before we come together on 
the land. But the latter will follow. We shall 
60on discover we need a common flag, a com- 
mon citizenship, and a common naval policy. 

The Death These things lie in the future. In 
o^ the present we have to lament the 
Lord death of a noble Englishman who 
<>aun o ® j„ o-ood repute and ill laboured at 
Washington for the promotion of the great 
cause. Lord Pauncefote, whose death is an 
international calamity, succeeded in winning 
the confidence and commanding the respect of 
.-everyone with whom he had to do. As chief 
of the British delegation at the Hague he ren- 
dered splendid service to the cause of peace, 
and as Ambassador at Washington he suc- 
ceeded in securing the pacific settlement of 
many difficulties which, in less skilful hands, 
might have led to disastrous consequences. 
His great ambition was to have settled all out- 
standing disputes between the Empire and the 
Republic, and then, after having concluded a 
permanent treaty of arbitration between the 
•two Governments, to have returned home to 
die. Alas, with him as with Mr. Rhodes, it 
was a case of " so much to do, so little done." 
The Alaska dispute is still open, and no per- 
manent treaty of arbitration is within sight. 
The refusal of our Government to adopt the 
methods laid down at the Hague for avoiding 
ihe war in South Africa was a bitter disap- 

pointment to Lord Pauncefote, who felt con- 
fident that had the Hague rules been followed 
there would have been no difficulty in securing 
all we wanted without a war. It is sincerely 
to be hoped that his successor will be a man 
like himself, learned in the law, and resolute 
to seek peace and ensure it. 

,^,, The question of Anglo-American 
chamtMir- reunion is not so immediately 
lain and the pressing as that of the rearrange- 
ment of the relations between Great 
Britain and her self-governing Colonies. The 
conference of Colonial Premiers with the Co- 
lonial Secretary, which is to follow the Coro- 
nation, is exciting hopes which are destined to 
disappointment. Mr. Seddon and Sir Wilfrid 
Laurier are both hot for a preferential duty. 
Mr. Chamberlain, in a notable speech at Bir- 
mingham, foreshadowed a readiness to meet 
them more than half-way : — 

If by adherence to economic pedantry, to old shibbo- 
leths, we are to lose opportunities of closer union which 
are offered us by our colonies, if we are to put aside 
occasions now within our grasp, if we do not take every 
chance in our power to keep British trade in British 
hands, I am certain that we shall deserve the disasters 
which will infallibly come upon us. 

The new corn law, which is equivalent to an 
ad valorem tax of 3f per cent, upon the bread 
of the people, opens the door, as Sir Wilfrid 
Laurier has frankly stated, to an arrangement 
which would give Canadian wheat a preference 
in the English market. 

The " I cannot conceive," said the Ca- 
prem"l^ nadian Premier, "that Mr. Cham- 
in berlain would invite the Colonial 

Conference representatives to discuss the ques- 
tion of commercial relations unless the British 
Government had something to propose." But 
if we may draw any conclusions from Lord 
Salisbury's weighty words of warning when he 
addressed the Primrose League, he has nothing 
to propose. As Sir Wilfrid Laurier has re- 
fused to discuss the question of a common 
policy of Imperial defence, there seems to be 
some considerable danger of the Colonial Con- 
ference coming to nothing. The Liberal party 
is solidly opposed to the new bread-tax. Bury 
election, where a steady Unionist majority of 
800 was converted into a minority of 400. 
showed that the constituencies are in no mood 
for dearer bread. Mr. Chamberlain will have 
to look well to his steering, for his Zollverein 
barque is in the midst of perilous cross-cur- 
rents. It may easily happen that over the 
grave of our Empire may be inscribed the old 
inscription over a tombstone in an English 
churchvard : " I was well. I would be better. 
Here f lie.'* 



JlllV ?0, lOOJ. 



Our Own New Zealand Boys.*^ 

Mr. E. C. Carr, Kaukapakapa, Auckland, sends ua 
a somewhat lengthy- set of verses on this topic; we 
regret we cannot fand room for more than three or 
four stanzas: — 

As the great kauri lifts its head, 

King of the kingly trees around, 
Its mighty crown, green-tufted spread, 

Its roots deep-set in solid grouna. 

So our own New Zealand boys uplift 

Their heads above a meaner race; 
Their crowning manhood's noblest gift 

Are patriot hearts, true pride of place. 

As the dense puriri superb 
Carries its foliage close and wide. 

With vigour nothing can disturb, 
Enduring like no tree beside, 

So the close fibre of our boys 
Bears everv strain imposed by life — 

In back-block quiet, city noise. 
In arts of peace, 'mid stress of strife. 

Happy the land whose stalwart son:* 

Have never suffered abject want; 
Happy the land where plenty rums. 

Where nought that mortals need is" scaut. 

Our boys know not the dismal thrall 
That bows the neck and breaks che heart, 

Where for bread men vainly call, 
And hunger presses with sore smart. 

They know the land of brooks and rills. 

Of balmy air, of brilliant sky. 
Of fertile vales and fruitful hills. 

Where pestilence and plague pass by. 

The Nationalisation of Trusts. 

In a very ingenious and able paper, Mr. T. J. 
McBride (Ma.-*sey-Harris Co. Ltd., Melbourne) argnes 
that Trusts have come to stay; that, as against the 
policy of unrestricted competition, they have some jus- 
tification; yet they constitute a menace to the public 
welfare, and in the public interest they must be " na- 
tionalised." Mr. McBride works out in detail a scheme 
for nationalising the trusts. He says: — 

" Any successful private capitalistic consolidation that 
Mill hereafter be .successful, and tolerated for any con- 
>^iderable time by the people, must embrace all the 
necessary manufacturers and producers engaged in the 
production and distribution of a special line of manu- 
facture, produce, or commodities, and also all the 
distributers and consumers in the business field so cov- 
»Ted or exploited. Any trust that wUl include all 
the people affected thereby will be permanent; but 
anything short of such inclusion will not endure. Pri- 
vate capitalists who appreciate fair and just dealing 
should be satisfied through co-operative combination 
with the whole trade of the country. State, or district, 
as proposed, in the line of DMnufacture, etc., in which 

they are interested, coupled with a specified and sure- 
return upon their investments. 

•' 1. Each Charter of Incorporation should state that 
the company will pay the workers (the producers) 
employed, a specified, liberal minimum wage for an 
eight hour work-day, and that all employes shall be 
given an opportunitv to earn more, if able, either on 
the premium system, or by a fixed piece price for a 
given time or job, in addition to their individual 
share of the annual surplus. (See Clause 13.) . . . 

" 3. That the prices charged for the goods, wares, 
and merchandise manufactured or handled by the co- 
operative company shall be as low as, or lower (beoaose 
01 the eco'-omies permitted), than similar goods were 
obtainable at before the co-operative company was 
formed, and that the quality of the goods shall be 
maintained (as thev can easily), by systematic inspec- 
tion and careful experiment, fully equal in every way 
to the goods produced for the same purpose in any 
other country. 

" 4. That all freights and charges shall be pre-paid, 
and that prices within the zone or territory covered 
shall be uniform to all customers or consumers, so a* 
to equalise the benefits attached to location. 

" 5. That goods shall only be supplied for cash, or 
its equivalent, so as to destroy the pernicious force 
sale and credit system. 

" 6. That salaries shall only be taken by the officials 
of the company such as are usually paid, or allowed in 
business callings of like matmitude. Salaries should, 
however, always be liberal, and should be based on ac- 
tual service, experience, and capabihty, not forgetting 
that the greatest economy in any business can be best 
effected by good organisation and capable management. 
" 7. That the directors shall be men of experience, 
and that at least two-thirds of their mimoer shall be 
actually engaged in the business; but shalt not be 
paid lor their service as directors in addition to 
their usual salary. . . . 

" 9. That a reserve of 20 per cent, of the capital shall 
be gradually accumulated, half from the annual sur- 
plus, which" may be due as a rebate to the customers 
and employes of the company, and half from the in- 
terest, or dividend due to the shareholders. This 
reserve to be maintained, as a safeguard against de- 
preciation, fire, tempest, etc., and from which the fixed 
interest, or dividend on the sha^res, may be paid tem- 
porarily, in the event of shortage from any cause. 
This reserve would add indirectly to the value of the 

" 10. That, in order to encourage exertion and to en- 
sure patronage, employes and customers shall have the 
privilege of buying and owning shares at par in the 
business in which they are interested. 

" 11. That bonds, the proceeds of which are not 
used in the business, shall not be sold, nor shall pre- 
ference on watered shares be issued or allotted to 
any individual or corporation excepting a limited and 
specified amount to cover organisation expenses. 

" 12. That the shareholders shall accept, as interest 
or dividend on their investment, a stipulated per- 
centage, not to exceed in any form more than 10 
per cent, per annum foi the first five years after in- 
corporation; 9 per cent, per annum for the second five 
years after incorporation; 8 per cent, per annum for the 
third five years after incorporation: 7 per cent, per 
annum for the fourth five years after incorporation; 
and 6 per cent, per annum thereafter. 

Rirvnw or Rkvikws, 
JtTL* 20. 1902. 



13. That the surplus earnings, after paying all 
^xpensee of every nature, the interest or dividend speci- 
fied, and after setting aside the reserves, shall be re- 
turned to the employes and the coneunners, or custom- 
ers of the comp>any (who made it possible to have 
a Burplue) in proportion to their respective wages 
earned, and their cash purchases during the previous 
businem year. A small percentage may be paid to the 
Government, if required, to compensate for loss in rev- 
enue on foreign-made goods, no longer imported. 

" 14. That each shareholder shall have only one vote, 
the same as in an ordinary partnership, regardless of 
the number of shares held. 

" 15. That a complete statement of the company's 
affairs shall be supplied annually to Parliament, and 
shall be published for general information. 

"16 That the Government resers'es the option of 
taking over an'd of nationalising the company's busi- 
ness at any time, if desired, by giving to the com- 
pany five years' notice of such intention; and in that 
event the Government shall pay to the company in 
legal tender money or Government bonds, at the com- 
pany's option, the total amount of its invested capital, 
and, in addition, an amount equal to ten per cent, of 
its total share capital, to cover good-will, patents. 
and all other claims and demands of every nature. 

" The Government, on its part, and on behalf of the 
people, could not reasonably object to protect absolutely 
a co-operative company, its employes and customers, so 
organised, against the importation of such goods, 
wares, or merchandise as the company may manufac- 
ture successfully for the home market, and it would 
doubtless allow a rebate of the duty paid upon any need- 
ful foreign raw materials entering into the manufac- 
ture of the goods, wares, or merchandise made at the 
home factories for export, until the raw materiaLs 
required are produced and supplied satisfactorilv at 

" Desirable Results Assured. — A co-operative com- 
pany, of national or fixed territorial scope, organised 
on the foregoing basis, with ample local capital, con- 
ducted privately, but in the interests of all, as speci- 
fied, and covering any complete line of production, 
would give a new and much needed impetus to home 
production, distribution, and consumption. It would 
require no Government subsidy or bonus. It could 
not (if inclined) take advantage of a protective tariff 
by increasing prices, which is the chief debatable fea- 
ture relating to protection. It would enable the 
people t® realise the full benefits of protection, with- 
out the tariff costing any citizen a single farthing. 
It would ensure good wages and fair treatment to em- 
ployes. It would assist permanently in solving the 
labour problem, by finding employment for thousandn 
who must otherwise be unemployed. It would enable 
the employes and consumers to invest their savings 
in the business with which they are identified. It 
would create a better home market (the best market). 
and enable the producers to purchase in greater abund- 
ance all other products of labour. It would provide 
employment at home for our young men, wbo are natu- 
rally adapted for manufacturing and mercantile pur- 
suits. It could not fail, under reasonable care and 
good management, as the long cash price for all goods 
sold would be retained in the business till the close 
of each year. It would ensure a permanent, reason- 
able, and sufficient fixed return upon the private capi- 
tal employed, and, consequently, make the shares a 
very saie and desirable investment. It would prevent 
the serious to the consumers occasioned by need- 
less competition overlapping, and duplication at home 
and from abroad. It would keep millions of cash in 
use, and in circulation at home. It would develop 
our natural raw materials, such as coal, timber, iron, 
etc., etc., which would be used largely in our home 
industries. It would save needless expense by the 
purchase of all raw materials, and the sale of all the 
finished goods, through single departments. It is well 
known that under competition it usually costs more to 
realise the letail price of goods than it costs to make 
them. It would enable the company to supply the 

goods manufactured to consumers at prices heretofore 
unknown, and practically at cost. ... It is true 
that specified or regulated profits would not make 
millionaires; but just wages, reasonable prices, and 
fair returns on invested capital would be better for 
the community than to perpetuate the countless evil* 
incident to unrestricted private monopoly." 

"The Review of Reviews for Australasia.^ 

Mr. Swiss (Port Augusta, S.A.) writes a eulogy of 
the " Review of Re\news for Australasia," whicn, by 
its generous warmth, almost brings a blush to even 
the cheek of its editor! Mr. Swiss says: — 

■■ I would not miss the ' Review of Reviews for Aus- 
tralasia ' for anything; in fact, I find it quite indis- 
pensable to me to gain a full knowledge of everythinc; 
in a brief space. It seems to have nothing missing, 
and all subjects are discussed so graphically. It has 
won the highest honour possible with me. No maga- 
zine or paper I ever saw can compete with it for 
concise, wise judgment, and reliable knowledge. Since 
taking it I have discarded many papers and periodicals 
T used to read before I knew it. It seems to me to 
deserve the title of 'The Review of the World.' I 
consider it the cheapest magazine I ever saw or read. 
I like the freedom and fearless manner the editor treats 
all subjects alike, and all persons and nationalities 
witii the same even hand of justice." 

The Commonwealth and the Aborigfines. 

On this subject Mr. Edward Dowling (East Mel 
bourne) writes forcibly and at length. He says: — 

" The framers of the Australian Commonwealth Bill 
of 1891 did not provide in it for taking away from the 
Governments of the various colonies the care of the 
aboriginal natives living in them, although following 
in this draft constitution closely in other respects, 
American and Canadian precedent. An attempt was, 
however, made in 1898, on my motion at the People's 
Convention in Bathurst, to recommend tnat the cus- 
tody of the whole of the aboriginals of the Australian 
Continent should be transferred to the Federal Legis- 
lature, but my resolution was defeated, though by a 
small majority. Some recent action taken by the 
Federal Parliament suggests that my confidence in 
the wider justice of a national representation to re 
dress any grievances of our dark countrymen wa-> 
somewhat misplaced. For example, in the Excise Taritf 
Bill, at present under consideration by the Federal 
Parliament, it is provided that a rebate is to be made 
of 4s. per ton on all sugar cane delivered for manu- 
facture, and in the production of which sugar cane 
white labour only has been employed, after Februar>' 
28, 1902. As there are many full-olood and half-caste 
aborigines on the north-coast rivers of New Soutli 
Wales, where sugar cane is cultivated, this limitation 
in the rebate to the white grower of su^ar cane and 
beet means that some of these aborigmes will be 
debarred from their usual employment. This prohi- 
bition must, therefore, cause considerable hardship to 
be inflicted on any of the original inhabitants who. 
from time to time, found employment in stripping the 
cane, or otherwise engaged in the sugar industry. A 
sense of injustice will consequently probably be aroused 
in the minds of these generally retiring and inoffensive 
people which may even lead them, when smarting under 
such a provocation, to endeavour to emulate the atroci- 
ties of the ' Governor ' family. 

" The Board for the Protection of Aborigines in New 
South Wales, of which I am a member, only gives ra- 
tions to women, children, and old men unable to 
work, as the funds at the Board's disposal will not 
permit (even if desirable) provision being made to 



July 20, Jp02. 

keep able-bodied abori^nes on various reserves, in a 
state of comparative idleness; bo that no assistance 
can be given to natives hitherto employed in sugar- 
growing who may be thrown out of work by recent 
Federal legislation. 

" Another injustice has also been committed on the 
aboriginal voter under the Commonwealth Franchise Bill, 
as, by one of its clauses, no native of Australia is entitled 
to have his name placed on an electoral roll, except 
so entitled under Section 41 of the Constitution. In 
this regard, it will be seen that the Australian abor- 
igine is treated as an alien in his own land, by being 
placed on the same footing as the dark races of 
Asia, Africa, and the islands of the Pacific, except, 
notaoly. that of New Zealana, as, strange to say, the 
disqualification does not extend to any of the Maori 
race who may be resident in the States of the Aus- 
tralian Commonwealth. When the Commonwealth 
of Australia Constitution Act was passed, it was fully 
understood that the rights of electors of States would be 
preserved, under Section 41, which states that ' no 
adult person who has or acquires a right to vote at 
elections for the more numerous House of the Parlia- 
ment of a State shall, while the rignt continues, be 
prevented, by any law of the Commonwealth, from 
voting at elections, for either House of the Parliament 
of the Commonwealth.' Not'withstanding this pro- 
vision in the Federal Constitution, an attempt is being 
made to nrevent aboriginals from exercising the fran- 
chise at Federal elections, even though many of them 
now have their names on the electoral rolls, or are in 
possession of the duly attested electoral right of their 
respective States. . . . There are numbers of dark 
but comely youths, educated in the primary schools of 
the various colonies, who have passed the required 
standard of education, and otherwise qualified them- 
selves for being intelligent voters. Considering, fur- 
ther, that the aboriginal race is rapidly dying out, it 
cannot but be deemed very harsh treatment that they 
should be deprived of any privileges of citizenship, 
and more especially so as the race is, year by year, be- 
coming more civilised, and unlike the poor specimens 
of humanity which once were to be seen in the streets 
of our principal cities. 

" The aborigines of Tasmania are now quite extinct, 
and the only likenesses of the race are to be found in 
a few pictures taken of the last of them before they 
disappeared. In Victoria, when, in 1857, the present 
excellent director, the Rev. F. A. Hagenauer^ entered 
on his work, there were about 3,500 full-blood abor- 
igines, and now there are only 400 remaining. 

" In New South Wales there are still, however, a 
large number of aborigines living on stations, under 
white managers, or by themselves, camped on reserves, 
although, T,TTien visiting Jervis Bay recently, I found 
only one full-blood, his son, daughter-in-law, and grand- 
child, being the last of a tribe of 250 who assembled 
there about a quarter of a century ago. The New 
South Wales Board has a number of excellent stations. 
on which numbers of aborirines reside in neat houses, 
erected for each family, and the reports of the school- 
inspectors, who have examined the children for years, 
are of a most favourable character, and show that 
the coming race of full-blood and half-caste aborigines 
will be better men and women than their parents. 

" In some of the Eastern States many aboriginals 
are emert shearers, and, therefore, receive the same 
pay as white men, so that, indeed, in several cases, 
they have been allowed to join the trades union. The 
whole question, however, of the future of our abor- 
igines is well worthy of consideration, not only by our 
statesmen, but also by the leaders of religious bodies 
and other patriotic citizens of the Commonwealth. 

" The tribes inhabiting the shores of Port -Jackson 
ceased to exist half a century ago, by the death of an 
old blackfellow, I can well remember, nick-named 
Rickety Dick, who was a contemporary of King Bun- 
garee, the famed Benilong, Old Wingle, Jackie Har- 
ris, Mother Gooseberry, and other celebrities, who 
camped in the Sydney Domain, and made it resound 
with their weird corrobories and songs. Only last 

week I had the pleasure of shaking hands vrith the last 
of the Melbourne tribe, named William Barak, at the 
Coranderrk Station, who, I am told, as a t)oy lived on 
the banks of the Yarra, when Batman first arrived in 
Hobson's Bay; and although now about seventy years 
old, he enjoys as much pnysical power as is usually 
found in old men." 

The Decimal System. 

We are unable to open our columns for a general 
controversy on this subject; but Mr. Frederick Carr, 
Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, Levuka, Fiji, 
writes a letter, putting the case against the system. 
We find room for part, at least, of the letter. He 
says: — 

"... Going back into th€ twilight of the his- 
tory of civilisation, we learn that the ten digits have 
given to mankind his first ideas of numeration, nor 
has ■■'iiy later acquired knowledge shaken the firm roots 
of this primitively acquired, simple, and utilitarian 
method of counting by tens. As civilisation advanced, 
and intercourse and transactions increased among men, 
to simple numeration was added simple division, mul- 
tiplication, and subtraction. It was intuitively per- 
ceived, in these far-off times, that in market dealing? 
a unit of ten would never do, and multiples of ten made 
the unit no better. And so the people of every na- 
tion, while retaining the decimal system of numeration, 
have, side by side with it, for purposes of exchange 
and barter, adopted simple division ana multiplication 
as a basis, with a unit capable of the greatest divis- 
ibility. This has been done so invariably, that it 
may be said to be necessary and intuitive, like the 
form of the bees' honey cells, because even as inani- 
mate matter and low organisms, man follows the line 
of least resistance, in this case least resistance being 
greatest simplicity. And so the first divisions were 
arrived at by halving, and halving, and halving again- 
and, conversely, of multiplication, by doubling, and 
doubling again. It requires little perception to see 
that, by this process, when units of measure or 
weight became adopted, they would be capable of 
great divisibility, which is the chief requisite of a 
unit for dispersion; and so we find, in all countries, 
twelve is the principal unit in weights, measures, and 
coins. . . . 

" For facilitating these simple natural divisions, a 
unit of divisibility is absolutely necessary. Twelve 
is a number that can be divided by 2, 3, 4, 6. with a 
result of i, l-3rd, l-4th, l-6th, all "simple vnilgar frac- 
tions, comprehended by the most primitive minds, and 
understood by the more intelligent without an effort. 
Contrast this with the irremediable complexity and 
indivisibility of a decimal number. The half of 10 
is 5, the half of 5 is 2i (a compound fraction), a 
taird of 10, 3.3 (an imperfect division), a quarter of 
100 must be expressed as two tenths and five hun- 
dredths. These may be small matters in a merchant's 
office, but in the common transactions of every-day 
life they are a fatal encumbrance. Even if the number 
10 were a useful unit for measures and weights, there 
still remains the fact that all the natural divisions of 
time and space will not conform, to a decimal divi- 
sion—the days, weeks, and months of the year, the 
hours, minutes and seconds of the day. The mariner's 
compass is necessarily divided by halving and halving, 
until 32 points are reached. The circle in geometry 
is conveniently divided into quadrants, etc.; it would 
never do to decimalise the degrees into which it is 
divided. The centigrade thermometer is an abject 
failuie, and the more scientific division- of Fahrenheit 
is the envy of French meteorologists. Our measures 
of capacity, gallons, quarts, pints, gills, are all dealt 
with in halves and quarters; even the larger measures, 
such as quarter casks, etc., are conveniently treated in 
the same manner. Again, it is essential to carpenters 
and mechanics to have a measure of even divisibilitv. 
How, then, can it be said that a 10th division of 
money will facilitate exchange in articles that from 


Jdlt 20, 1902. 



time immemorial have been divided into halves, thirds, 
quarters, eighths, etc.. etc.? 

" It is said that many nations have partially or 
wholly adapted the decimal system. True, it was 
forced upon the French nation at the time of the Re- 
volution by a bureaucracy. Bismarck forced it on the 
Germans with scant consideration. The American 
Parliament adopted it without consulting the people, 
and many smaller nations have followed suit. In all 
these countries the common people ignore the tenth 
division wherever it is possible, and still continue their 
old nomenclature; they infringe the decimal system by 
talking, and thinking, and dealinsr in the natural divi- 
sions of halves, quarters, etc. ^^ early four generations 
have failed to wean them from old habits. The New 
York Stock Exchange deals and quotes in dollars, 
halves, charters, eighths, and sixteenths, instead of 
cents. The American papers advertise, invariably, 
their prices in dollars, and 25, 50, To cents, thus 
ignoring the decimal division. In fact, wherever the 
decimal system has been adopted, the usages of trade, 
the customs of the people, invalidatt its universality by 
maintaining the more simple divisions, and so ' the 
system makes confusion worse confounded. . . 

" Whatever advantage might accrue to English mer- 
chants and manufacturers by facilitating foreign trade, 
it" the Continental system were adopted, it must be re- 
membered that the foreigner is equally disadvantaged 
in his trading with England. But in Australia, where 
our exports are principally bulk cargoes of raw produce, 
and our imports from Europe manufactures, it is the 
foreigner's trouble to accommodate his trade to our 
weights and measures. Why, therefore, should mil- 
lions of retail transactions be impeded, to facilitate a 
few hundred merchants' dealings? 

" So far from thinking, with Mr. Barbour, that 
the Select Committee will be immortalised for their 
exertions, it is fairer to say that it would be nothing 
short of a national crime to adopt such a retrograde 
currency, and if those gentlemen become immortalised, 
it will be with unenviable notoriety. There is not 
a single recorded case of a nation or people having 
spontaneously adopted a decimal system of money, 
weights, and measures; nor has it ever been seriously 
clamoured for. Such a radical interference with the 
daily transactions of the million should never be 
adopted without a popular vote on the subject. If it 
is ever done it will show the powerful effect of a small 
organisation exerted against the passive non-resistance 
of the people." 

The State Control of the Liquor Traffic 

'■ An Advanced New Zealand Liberal " (Eketahuna) 
writes on the above subject, contending that the policy 
of prohibition must fail, and arguing earnestly in favour 

of State control. We give part of our correspondent's 
argument: — 

" State control of liquor, or the sale of drink in 
Government depots, is the only feasible solution of 
this problem, for the following reasons: 

"Owing to public opinion being in favour of re- 
ducing the number of licenses, notwithstanding the 
rapid growth of our population, the liquor trade has 
become a monopoly in this colony. Therefore, it 
should be under State control. 

" All other Departments, such as Life Insurance. 
Railway, Saving Bank, Loans to Settlers, and the Land 
Department (with its thousands of tenants), are 
conducted successfully, and not used as political levers, 
to gain votes, as some argue State liquor depots would 

" In 1899 there were 6,194 convictions for drunken- 
ness out of 22,674 criminal cases. Therefore, abuse 
of liquor being the cause of over a fourth of the con- 
victions, it is desirable that it should be under public 
control. In the Clutha District, N.Z., there were 130 
arrests for drunkenness during three and a half years 
prior to prohibition being passed in this district; dur- 
ing the tnree and a half years after prohibition there 
were six arrests for drunkenness. 

" At the next Local Option Poll the prohibition and 
publican vote will be equal, but, owing to the pro- 
hibition party having to poll a three-fifth majority be- 
fore their policy is carried, it means waiting about six 
years before any reform is effected which will be of 
benefit to ourselves and to outside colonies. There the 
present Government, to be politic, should assume con- 
trol of this trade, aa they are acquiring the large sheep 
stations compulsorily. This would suit both parties, 
and stop the triennial conflicts. 

" Owing to our small population of three-quarters of 
a million, an experiment of this kind could be tried 
without fear of disorganising the customs of the people, 
or trade, to any great extent. 

" If found to work in our progressive Islands, older 
colonies, like Victoria and New South Wales, with 
their one and a quarter millions each of inhabitants, will 
no doubt copy us. They adopted our Old Age Pen 
sion Act, One Man One Vote, jiAvXy Closing Bill, etc.. 
after we had tried same, and now it is our duty, as a 
pilot colony, to adopt State Control, which would be 
adapted to the needs of the people of warm Australia, 
where drinking is almost a necessity, and also to the 
Old Land, where drinking is a custom. 

" In New Zealand there is one license to about every 
500 of the population. Under State control it i-; 
proposed to establish one State Liquor Depot to everj' 
l.OOiO of the population in the country and one depot 
to every 2,000 in the towns. This would mean one bar. 
under State control, where four bars for the sale of 
drink now exist in the towns, and one State bar or 
depot in the country districts, where two licensed 
bars are now. Thus, wholesale reduction is carried." 



IllJy 20, iri(i2. 


4*^ a»»d th*i W> Nat r«'-6r 4njoy*d iceL 


At en (sRsd u dis Ustofj ISr. B«Si u-ia<i ej^iag •• a fen 
'§ c»i«u«, b^t «K.b fcrnv«d M t^ CQDchtsioff thai Cor ere -M 

London " Punch " expends some excellent satire on 
Mr. Seddon. Here is an exan^ple:— 

Mr. Seddon at Sea. 

(Communicated by Marconi Wire.) 

Wednesday.— The presence on board of Mr. Seddon. 
the great Premier of New Zealand, is arousing the 
keenest interest amongst the passengers. A movement 
was immediately organised to present him with an 
axidress, expressive of the admiration aroused by his 
patriotic conduct and his outspoken language. The 
presentation was made at 3 o'clock to-day, the Bishop 
of Borholla being the spokesman of the (Organising 
Committee. In reply, Mr. Seddon said that so long 
as there was mutton in New Zealand he would never 
cease in his efiforts on behalf of the federation of the 
British Empire, but statesmen at home must recogniee 
that only by a system of larger purchases at higher 
prices could satisfaction be given to the loyal popula- 
tion of the Colony he represented. With regard 
to martial law, of which he had some little experience 
in Cape Colony, he desired to say that of all the absurd, 
vexatious, and preposterous restrictions put on the lib- 
erty of a free-bom New Zealander— (the rest of tb« 
message was censored, having been intercepted bv 
H.M.S. Bullfinch). 

Thursday.— Mr. Seddon has had a busj' day. Directly 
after breakfast he summoned all the crew into the 
saloon, and addressed them in a stirring harangue on 
tne duties and privileges of the British sailor. One 
passage has excited considerable comment: — " I am not 
Bure," said Mr. Seddon, " judging by what 1 have 
obfierved since I came on board, that there is not a dis- 
position to impose too many petty restrictions on the 
fcailors who d« the work on board this chip. I 

tto<A oorf asit6ii ta iaak ^^ 

' BuUetin."] 


Rbtiew or Rbvikws 
Jew 90, 190i. 



strongly advise you, when you receive au order, to 
ask yourselves whether itf3 execution is consistent 
with the inalienable rights of a Briton. It you find 
that it is not so, it will obviously be your duty not 
to cany it out — at any rate, not without consulting nie. 
I hhiW at all times," continued Mr. Seddon, amidst 
great applause, " be ready to give you advice on these 
points." Some of the ship's officers, including the 
Captain, seemed disposed to thiniv that Mr. Seddon 
fjpoke, if anything, just a little too strongly. They 
urge, too, that the Captain's consent should have been 
asked before the crew were summoned to the saloou, 
as ^uC absence of all the men from their work might, 
under certain circumstances, have involved the ship in 
various risks. These remarks were, it is supposed, 
conveyed to ^fr. Seddon, for during lunch he wae 
hearv.. to say that, as Premier of New Zealand, and a 
friend of the Colonial Secretary, he could not possibly 
submit to dictation from anyone — certainly not from the 
eaptain of a merchant vessel. 

In the afternoon Mr. Seddon addressed the engineers 
and the firemen in similarly uncompromising languajre. 
He was accorded an enthusiastic ovation. After din- 
ner he proceeded to the steerage, and made another 
great speech, calling on the steerage passengers to re- 
main true to themselves, and to those ereat principles 
which had not only made Great Britain the richest 
country in the world, but had also enabled him (Mr. 
Seddon) to attain to the Premiership of New Zealand 
and the friendship of Lord Kitchener and Lord Milner. 
He begged them, finally, not to allow ttiemselvos to 
be ti-arapled on by anj'body. Just as the meeting was 
concluding, the purser appeared in the steerage, and 
requested Mr. Seddon to withdraw. Mr. Seddon was 
TOUcb displeased, but it is hoped that no di.sagrecabl* 

consequences will follow upon an incident which i>* 
deplored by the best opinion on board eblp. Later 
in the evenin*', however, Mr. Seddon was ob-icrved 
to be engaged in animated conversation with the 
three Maori Chieftains who act as his body servant*. 
anU before retiring to his state-room he was occupied 
in testing his boomerangs and polishing his speare. 

Friday.— Startling events have occurred. J^arly this 
utoruino". while the Captain was in his room, the crew 
rose in revolt, overpowered the officers, and placed 
Mr. Seddon in chief eommanu. Mr. Seddon made a 
ver>' eloquent and patriotic speech on the occasion. He 
is now steering the ship. A consiuerabte amount of 
apnrehension prevails. I am sending this message 
without Mr. Seddon's knowledge. He has placed the 
ship under martial law, and has forbidden all communi- 
oation vnth the land. 

Later. — The crew have deposed j\Ir. Seddon, liberated 
their ofScers, and unconditionally submitted. Mr. Sed- 
don is now in irons. It is honed that nublic oninion 
in Great Britain and New Zealand will not be undulv 
inflamed by this treatment of the great Premier. No 
other course, unfortunately, was possible. Mr. Sed- 
don preserves his cheerfulness, and is, at this moment, 
composing tlie speech which he proposes to deliver to 
ttie peopie oi ]*?ngland on landing. 

" Punch " adds this footnote: — 

The Premier of New Zealand, who is very much en 
evidence (as on tour), is clearly not given to Seddon- 
tarry pursuits. 

[This represents a budget of contributions from es- 
teemed correspondents, all of a similar character. After 
this, the less Sed-don the subject the better. — Ed. "P."] 

Writing in " Kaimsworth's Magazine " for May 
t>n Hunting Animals, Mr. T. C. Bridges says that 
one animal at least uses stones to kill its prey. 
The Polar bear in summer will watch for a walrus 
incautiously basking on the ice, roll a stone to the 
edge of a cliff, and with unerring judgment of dis- 
tance drop it on the walrus' head. Marie A. Belloc, 
discussing whether we can dress without Paris, 
decides that v,-e cannot, if we study economy and 
good taste. A limited dress allowance, she says, 
goes farther in Paris than in London, and our 
neighbours are more accommodating. Another 
article is devoted to Mr. E. J. Reed, of " Punch," 
and his work. 

The " Leisure Hour" for June contains, besides 
«evei'al Coronation articles, a topographical article 
on Westminster, and another on the Lions of the 

Arms of England used since Henry L's time. Aii 
active journalist's ' Life on the London Press" is 
interesting, but hardly quotable. Dr. Oldfield's 
account of "An Indian Gaol" and the method of 
treating the prisoners, who are only fed twice a 
day, with no meat, and yet improve greatly in 
condition, is perhaps the most interesting paper. 
The Archdeacon of London writes a flamboyant 
article on the Patriotism of Shakespeare (with long 
quotations from the historical plays), in which he 
compares the " patriotic ardour " of the past two 
years to " the youth of England on fire " under 
Henry V.; the same monarch addressing his troops 
before Harfleur gives the spirit of " the immortal 
marches to the relief of Ladysmith, Kimberley, 
and Mafeking; the description of his return from 
France " is almost a prophecy of London's welcome 
to the C.I.V.'s, and so forth. 



July 20, ipo2. 


John BUbt • "Ang hit '. 'E wo.Ti nrt y?- 
From the Ohio SttUe Jovrnal (Colurobist 


A X>reasi of Empire. 

Whaa'tasy o^li "t ill. 



jutT 20. \m 



A WAfL FROM THE NURSERY.— From the Plain ilea?er (Cleveland). 



July 20, 1^02. 

•• t,ET I>OM'K YHOfeS EABfi!" 

Froir. the Tf orid iKew York). 


Er.ock cut the prop edo down be goes. 

Tribune,' JMiuneapolio.] 


(News Item: Washington, May 7. — The Senate Com- 
mittee on Mililiiry Affairs yesterday completed the 
-\nnv Appi'opriation Bill. Increases recommended 
by the committee bring the total appropriation made 
by tin- Bill up to about .$100.000.CM)0.i 

•' jNnierican and Journal," New York.] 


(Uncle Sam, the cliainpion decorator, in his wonder- 
ful lightnint; act of p<i!iitin:j t)ic Stars and Stripes on 
even-thing in sight.) 

JULT 20, 1902. 



' BuiletiD."J 




July 20, ipo^c- 

" Westminster Gazette."] THE PUT-ON AND TAKE-OFF TAX. 

Sir Michael: " I'll tell you what it is. Chamberlain, if this peace comes very soon, I'll be hanged if I don't 
op the Bread Tax." ^ , , , , a„ 

Mr. C: "Good heavens! don't do that: What shall I say to Seddon when he comes!" 
Sir Michael: " Send him to my room!" 

" Westminster Gazette."] ANOTHER SEDDON APPARITION. 

Lord K.: "Good heavens! It's Seddon!" 

'• Mr. Seddon, the Premier of New Zealand, ha^ arrived at Johannesburg, and will probably visit Pre- 
ria before his return to Capetown."— Daily Paper. 




Lord Bobs: " Welcome, welcome, my dear Mr. Seddon. I was determined to be the first to bring 
the joyful news that the Boers have surrendered, and peace has been proclaimed in South Africa." 

King Dick: " Ah, I thought it only wanted my presence there to bring the beggars to reason. Dick, 
boy, you're simply irresistible. Shake hands, Bobs; with you and me to look after it, the Empire may ( 
the whole world." 

N.Z. " Free Lance."] " CALL ME DICK." 

King Edward: •• Atui now, Mr. Seddon. what is to be your reward? You have helped to add some je^ 
-to our crown, and have brought us out of a tight place in South Africa. In what way would you like u 
show our giatitude?" „ -,^. ,' j ^ . r ii c „■ 

King Dick: " I'm not a proud man, your Majesty. Just call me Dick, and treat me as one of the fami 



July 20, ipo^c- 

"Westminster Gazette."] THE PUT-ON AND TAELE-OFF TAX. 

Sir Michael: " I'll tell you what it is, Chamberlain, if this peace comes very soon, I'll be hanged if I don't 
op the Bread Tax." „ , , , , a„ 

Islv. C: "Good heavens! don't do that! What shall I say to Seddon when he comes i" 
Sir Michael: " Send him to my room!" 

■\Vestminster Gazette."] 
Lord K.: "Good heavens! 

It's Seddon!" 

'• Mr. Seddon, the Premier of New Zealand, ha- arrived at Johannesburg, and will probably visit Pre- 
ria before his return to Capetown." — Daily Paper. 


Jvht Su, i9U2. 




Lord Bobs: " Welcome, welcome, my dear Mr. Seddon. I wai? determined to be the first to bring you 
the joj^ul news that the Boers have surrendered, and peace has been proclaimed in South Africa." 

King Dick: " Ah, I thought it only wanted my presence there to bring the beggars to reason. Dick, my 
boy, you're simply irresistible. Shake hands, Bobs; with you and me to look after it, the Empire may defy 
the whole world." 

N.Z. " Free Lance."] " CALL ME DICK." 

King Edward: •• And now, Mr. Seddon. what is to be your reward? You have helped to add some jeweK 
to our crown, and have brought us out of a tight place in South Africa. In what way would you like us to 

show our gratitude?" „ .,,.,' 1 ^ . * j.i r _-i " 

King Dick: " I'm not a proud man, your Majesty. Just call me Dick, and treat me as one of the family. 



July 20, ipoj. 








































































Jvatx m* 



Br W. R FiTCHTrr. BA^ LL.D. 

The Coronation is arrested in mid-ooarse, and 
■ftith its sudden arresi much good literature goes 
to temporary wreck. It is indeed half pathetic 
and half amusing to reflect on the manner in 
which all the newspapers had — like those patent 
-American stores which consume their own smoke 
— to consume who'.e acres of their own Coronauon 
literature, which had been laboriously wTittea and 
■' set up ": But the Coronation is only postponec. 
and the myriad questions which it sugseets are 
sti'.l a'.ive. and worth eonsiderlng; and amongs: 
these cone is of keener interest than the quesiion 
of what is the n?al place of the Monarch in the 
British constitution under which we live. 

The British constitution is not " logical '" enough 
;o delight a French politician, nor sufficiently 
■' scientific " to satisfy a German philosopher. It 
was not drawn up and crystallised into a set of 
abstract propositions by a committee of experts. 
It has grown, instead of being made. It has its 
roots in far-off centuries: and. after the customary 
British fashion, it preserves ancient forms even 
when they are charged with a quite modem mean- 
ing. But this queer, composite, moss-covered, •'illo- 
gical" and •'unscientific" constitutionof ours at least 
has this merit — it works: Under Its shadow dwell 
some 40v\0i>0.000 people, nearly one-third of the 
human race. And this vast multitude — fifty nations 
rather than one — enjoy a l;v:ger freedom, an 
ampler measure of social order and of just govern- 
men: than any equal portion of the human race 
known to history has ever before! 

A Great SofVTvxl- 

But it must be confessed that the British sys- 
tem lends itself to criticism, and even to satire, in 
.i quite curious degree. It is a monarchy, and the 
democratic temper of the modern world is apt 
to look askance at kings. Moreover. It is an 
hereditary monarchy. The King reigns, it is s;iid 
with a sneer, for no better reason than because 
he was •' the son of his father." and, to quote a 
French wit. •* took the trouble to be born." Is not 
a Republic like the Unitetl States, with its Presi- 
dent chosen by the free votes of the p«ople. a more 
rational political system than an heredit.iry mon- 
archy, such as that under which we dwell? 

But we must not be tricked by words. There 
is no truer typt^ o{ wise demvx^racy to l>e found 
amoncst ctviUse.l governments than the British 

monarchy. It represents tie ruie of the 
by the people. The fcrm is kingly, biat tlie ft«t is- 
democratic. It was said of the Irr: Csssar tSat 
he hid the Imperial purple be"-.. :h the toga prae- 
textata. He kept the forms :: ■•.• ... 

and tise-1 the:m to conceal an --_.:.:-. ._ . ..i.j. 
constitution inverts tha:^ process; it cv. ::.;.:.■; i 
republic under the forms of a monarchy. 

The British monarchy, as a matter of Cut, is 
elective, though what is elected ks aoc a persosL. 
but a dynasty. The Act oi SettloieBt of IWl 
constitntes the title of the present Royal ttonBe of, 

And the monarchy is ccn^ratkMaal as weU as 
elective. It is based, that is, on express eoMtzaet. 
The Stuarts, of cojj~se. strog^ed to estabttah a 
monarchy of another type: a BBonarchy bailt an 
■ the right divine of kings to gowm -vnii^* 0»e 
Stuart king lost his head in the stn^?!e: a seeoKi 
lost his kingdom: and the the<Ky its^elf is dead 
beyond all hope of reisurrectitm. What may be 
called the terms of contract b e t n oau the BrittA 
monarch and the British people ftad thfeir 
expression in two imperiobaMe U^boitad 
ments — the Great Charter of 1215 and the Bill of 
Rights of lf>^ '' ' 5i was really a treaty 

denning the ;c--:::-- . , . _ _.:a the King held his 
crown, and Stubbs, in his ** Constitutional HW- 
tory." says that the whole history of the Ea^iah 
constitution since the days of Kin«r John Is - Itttie 
more than a commentary on Masaa Oiana." Ba: 
Magna Charta itself is but the re-emergence of the 
older English system from far-off SazEoa dajs. If. 
indeed, anyone desires an almost amiKtag iltas- 
tration of the stubborn British td^ty to one politi- 
cal type, the imperishable instinct in the RagHsh- 
man's blood which makes him a free man vader a 
free government, he may find it in the coatiaoity 
of the one ideal of British goremmeat. under the 
most diverse external forms. The Bill of Rights 
is but a reflex of the Great Charter: the Great 
Charter itself is but an echo from thr-ofl Saxon 
days. The ancient Saxon Witaaasemote and the 
modern British Parliament stand ia closest politi- 
cal kinship to each other. 

So Edward VII. is .-» cvvnstitutional monarch, ana 
his crown will be a pledge of duty, as well as a 
symbol of power. If he broke the t«aK of the 
contract between bis people and himself his et^own 



July 20, 1^02. 

would vanish. There is no loyalty due to a dis- 
loyal king! 

Form and Fact. 

It is almost amusing to note how the terms and 
•^orms of absolute power survive in the monarchy; 
tut survive drained of all reality. The King's name 
is stamped on the coins in our pockets, and upon 
the stamps on our letters. We date our laws ac- 
cording to the years of his reign. The judges are 
the instruments of his justice. All crimes are con- 
sidered as offences against his crown and dignity. 
The peace of the realm is " the King's peace." The 
army is the King's army, the fleets constitute the 
King's navy. Yet the King himself, of his per- 
sonal will, cannot disrate a corporal, nor commis- 
sion a dinghy, nor appoint a policeman, nor take 
a single sixpence out of the pocket of his humblest 
subject. He can do nothing but through his 
Ministers — not even wrong! And his Ministers 
are the creation of Parliament, and are responsible 
to it for the " advice " they pour into the Royal 
ear. So, under the forms of a constitutional 
monarchy, the will of the people, as represented by 
a free Parliament, finds instant and effective ex- 
pression. The King is but a crowned umpire, set 
.on high to see that in the struggles of party poli- 
tics the rules of the game are observed. The 
Royal seal on an Act of Parliament is only a cer- 
tificate that it has been duly enacted by a free and 
representative Parliament. 

The truth is that the great American republic 
itself is much less " republican " than the consti- 
rtutional monarchy under which the British Empire 
has grown to such a scale. President Roosevelt 
has a thousand times over more direct despotic 
power than Edward VII. The President of the 
United States appoints his own Cabinet without 
•reference to Parliament; and each member is no- 
thing more than his servant. He is the chief both 
of the army and the navy; he has a direct veto 
on legislation. Mr. Cleveland alone vetoed 304 
bills; whereas the last English monarch who dared 
to veto a measure passed by Parliament was Queen 
Anne, in 1707, and then it was only a Scotch 
Militia Bill! Mr. Roosevelt has the direct power 
of appointment or dismissal over more than 3,500 
public servants. For the area of direct authority 
he covers, the President of the United States can be 
classed with the Emperor of China or the Czar of 
all the Russias! But Edward VII., even in India — 
where he is the Emperor over 290.000,000 coloured 
people — cannot levy a sixpence, or enlist a Sikh 
trooper, but through a Minister responsible to Par- 

The Area of Royal Power. 

No doubt the power of the King tends to grow. 
Mr. Balfour told the House of Commons the other 

day, *' In my judgment the importance of the 
Crown in our constitution is not a diminishing 
but an Increasing factor. It is increasing, and must 
increase," Queen Victoria certainly ruled as well 
as reigned. Her woman's voice, its low, clear ac- 
cents, only audible in the council chamber, counted 
for more on many public questions than the votes 
of Parliament, or the arguments of a thousand 
newspapers. The Queen's personal influence, it may 
be contended, was but a personal accident. It was 
due to the long stretch of her reign. During that 
reign, for example, no less than thirty Colonial 
Secretaries flitted in and out of Downing Street; 
and behind the whole thirty was the one un- 
changing figure of the Queen! She had " forgotten 
more stat^-craft," one shrewd observer said, " than 
most of her Ministers ever knew." The name of 
the Great White Queen counted for more than the 
debates and votes of Parliament for the coloured 
races; and there are seven coloured subjects of 
the empire for every white subject. For Queen 
Victoria we might borrow Shakespeare's descrip- 
tion of Queen Elizabeth, as — 

" Great lady of the greatest isle, wh-ose light 
Like Phoebus' lamp throughout the world doth shine." 

She was, in fact, even more than Mr. Gladstone, 
the one continuous personal force in the public life 
of the empire. But that was a personal accident 
which can only be repeated under like personal 
conditions. As far as the constitution is con- 
cerned the King reigns, but Parliament governs. 

A Political Contrast. 

Much cheap and foolish wit is expended on the 
hereditary element in the British monarchy. Why 
should Edward VII, be King by the accident of his 
birth? Yet if there is anything in the doctrine of 
heredity the system must have its advantages. 
Edward VII. comes from a line of Kings. He is 
thirty-eighth in descent from King Egbert the 
Saxon. The blood of Alfred the Great and of a 
hundred statesmen and warriors runs in his veins. 
If breed tells where only the wool on a sheep's 
back or the speed in a horse's hoofs is concerned, 
why should it not tell in kingship? In any case, 
it may be affirmed with confidence that the British 
method of securing a head for the crowned republic 
we call an empire is incomparably cheaper and 
more effective than, say, the American system. 
During the sixty golden years of good Queen 
Victoria's reign, for example, the United States 
went no less than fifteen times through the wild 
and tempestuous process of electing a President. 
During the same period the United States saw the 
assassination of two of its Presidents and the 
bloodiest civil war recorded in history! Which 

lUviBw or Bsmwa, 
July SO, 1902. 



of the two systems secures its end with most of 
certainty and order can hardly be doubted. 

In his "American Commonwealth," Bryce de- 
votes a whole chapter to the discussion of the 
question, " Why great men are not chosen presi- 
dent." Since Jefferson and Adams passed away, 
only two American Presidents — Lincoln and Grant 
— have brought great qualities to their great office. 
The truth is that only mediocrities, who are com- 
paratively harmless, can pass with safety through 
the fiery furnace of a Presidential election. Taking 
1789 as a starting point, if the nineteen American 
Presidents be compared with nineteen English 

Prime Ministers, no one can doubt as to which group 
is highest in intellect. The American President, 
it may be added, emerges from the fight for White 
House as he went into it — a partisan; and he uses 
his great office for the interests of his party. It 
was an American President who, when he stepped 
across the threshold of White House, laid down the 
principle that " to the victor belong the spoils," a 
principle which throws two-thirds of the civil ser- 
vice of the United States into the furnace every 
fourth year. The British system at least sets its 
official head beyond the strife of factions. He 
belongs to no party; he represents the nation. 


Lord Salisbury as a Saint/* 

Such is the inscription beneath a picture of 
statuary in Mr. F. D. How's sixth paper on Lord 
Salisbury, in " Good Words." It might fitly head 
the entire article. The " curious and interesting 
statue is to be seen in the sculpture gallery of the 
beautiful reredos of the Chapel of All Souls' Col- 
lege, Oxford. The reredos was erected about forty- 
two years ago, at the time that Lord Salisbury had 
just been elected to a fellowship of All Souls', and 
the artist having determined to give his saints 
the faces of actual living people rather than ideal- 
ised features, chose Lord Salisbury's face as his 
type of a Christian warrior." Mr. How exclaims 
against the charge of extreme partisanship on 
the ritualistic side: — 

No ereater mistake could be made. Lord Salisbury 
is a High Churchman, but of the most wide-minded 
and charitable kind. He is no friend to the advanced 
school of modern ritualism, neither does he fail to 
appreciate at its full value the piety and learning of 
" Evangelicals " with whom he may not be in all matters 
in perfect sympathy. It is only necessary to notice 
the advice that he has given to the Crown as to the 
appointments to Bishoprics, to be assured of the im- 
partiality and wisdom of his views. 

A Record Bishop-maker. 
And then Mr. How recalls the extraordinary fact 
that as Prime Minister Lord Salisbury has been 
concerned in the appointment of thirty-seven 
bishops! This surely establishes something like a 
record in bishop-making. Yet Lord Salisbury 
used to say there were few whom he considered eli- 
gible for the episcopal bench, and few whom the 
Queen considered eligible, but the number whom 
both he and Her Majesty thought eligible was very 
small indeed. 

Sunday at Hatfield. 

After describing the chapel in Hatfield House, Mr, 

How proceeds: — 

The services in this chapel include daily morning 
prayer at 9.30 (the general breakfast liour being 10) 
and on Sundays an early celebration at 9.15, with after- 
noon service at 3.30. These services are taken by one 
of the curates at the parish church, but when there is 
no one staying at Hatfield the morning service on Sun- 
days is given up, Lord Salisbury and Lady Gwendolen 
Cecil coming to the church instead. These arrange- 
ments are all the easier to make as the rectory of Hat- 
field is held by Lord William Cecil, which recalls the 
fact that the rectory of Hawarden is held by the son 
of the late Mr. Gladstone, the rival statesmen each 
having had the happiness of being ministered to by one 
of their sons. Another coincidence is the circum- 
stance that both rectories are of exceptional value. 

A portrait of the rector of Hatfield has a strange 

resemblance to the bishops of Worcester and 

Rochester. Mr. Hr w has shown " the thorough 

attachment of Lord Salisbury to the Churcli": — 

His love for her has always been sincere and unos- 
tentatious. He has made few professions, he has not 
taken prominent part in her services except as a regu- 
lar worshipper, but the one thing which has had the 
power to rouse him to an outburst of indignation has 
been an attack upon her by her so-called friends. 

Saint and Scientist in On«. 

It is significant that this devout Churchman and 

maker of bishops has been, at the same time, and 

in this critical age, a noted man of science: — 

What is sometimes called " Lord Salisbury's den " 
consists of a laboratory, a dressing-room, and a bath- 
room on the ground floor. Though not nearly so much 
used of late years, there yet remains plenty of evidence 
in the paraphernalia of the former of the industry 
with which at one time its occupant pursued tiis scien- 
tific researches. It has already been stated that Lord 
Salisbury is a geologist of the first rank. He has 
also given time to photography, and to the practical 
study of electricity; the splendid electric lighting at 
Hatfield House having been carried out under his direc- 



July 20, igo2^ 


Bt J. W. KiBWAN, M.P. 

" National capitals are seld 
race, as in the case of Kome, 
more than justified the boldness 
Nile; so did St. Petersburg on 
stately splendour. . . . When 
in ancient architecture, Its capita 
that cluster round Westminster 
a dominant consciousness of the 
nature of the laws they are help 
for the absence of monuments of 
and equally to be commended w 
which the rocky heights of Ott 
was kindled at the sight of the 
castle on Edin's Hill. To fill a 
noble pile of the national build 
It may not be a logical ground 
and his actions when he goes back 
the Atlantic, or on the far-off 

om the result or deliberate choice. They, for the most part, grow with the- 
Paris, or London. Yet some which have been chosen in the wilderness have 

of their founders. Alexandria v.axed great and rich on the t)anks of the 
the Nevci; and Washington on the Potomac bids fair to excel them both in 

a country is young, and its history is not yet told in monuments, nor typified 
1 should be adorned in other ways. The Tower of London, and the memories 
Hall, must help to inspire even prosaic members of the British Parliament with 

continuity of the government in which they are taking part, and of the enduring 
ing to frame. Wise, then, were the advisers of the Queen when, to compensate 

the pa^t, they gave to Canada, for her capital, a site of surpassing beauty; 
ere those who conceived and carried out the glorious national buildings with 
awa are crowned. It cannot be denied that the patriotism of the Athenian 
Acropolis, and that every Scottish heart beats high when he sees the ancient 

Canadian with pride in his country, and confidence in its future, show him the 
ings, as they tower and glitter in the setting sun, far above the foaming river. 
for his patriotism, but it is a sentimental one, and it will influence his feelings 

to his distant home, whether it be on the western prairie, on the shores of 
Pacific slope."— Hon. J. D. Edgar, K.C., M.P., Speaker, Commons of Canada. 

To the national capitals referred to in these 
glowing words the Australian Commonwealth pro- 
pose to add another. The Federal Parliament is 
now comfortably housed in the commodious, al- 
most palatial buildings, so hospitably lent by the 
Victorian State Parliament. To the majority of 
the Federal members Melbourne is more con- 
venient, and certainly not less agreeable, for the 
sittings of Parliament, than any locality likely to 
be selected for the Federal Parliament. It is true 
there are those who believe that the influence of 
Melbourne has been exerted not without effect on 
the Commonwealth legislature during the settle- 
ment of the tariff, and that it would have been much 
better if the battle were fought out on neutral 
ground. Still, that in itself would not 
give rise to any desire to hurry away 
from such pleasant quarters, in order to 
fly to those unknown discomforts that some 
fear may for years be attendant on life in the 
new city. The main consideration In urging haste 
is anxiety to keep faith with the people of New 
South Wales. Were it not for the provision in the 
Commonwealth Bill that the capita.l must be in 
New South Wales, that colony would probably 
never have agreed to the Bill, and there would be 
no Federation to-day. In the same way Western 
Australia entered the Federation in the natural 
belief, strengthened by the assurances of the lead- 
ing statesmen of the other Australian colonies, 
that the Commonwealth would make the union be- 
tween the west and tbe east of the continent a 
reality by the early construction of the Port 
Augusta-Kalgoorlie railway. Hence it is that 

even those who dislike the idea of building a 
Federal capital, readily admit that for the honour 
of the Commonwealth the bargain with New South 
Wales must be adhered to. In order that the 
Federal Parliament may be installed in the capital 
within the next five years or so, it is necessary 
that the site should be selected as soon as possible. 
The first Parliament of the Commonwealth has 
many duties of vast importance to perform, but 
the choosing of a site for the future Federal capital 
is as important as, if not more important than, any. 
The machinery bills, the tariff, and the other legisla- 
tion dealt with can, where necessary, be improved 
later. In such cases a fzvCA raay be easily 
amended; but if a mistake be made in choosing 
the site, it will be a mistake for ever. To lessen 
the possibility of an error so vast, a couple of 
months ago a party from the Senate, and more re- 
cently a party from the House of Representative-:^, 
inspected the various proposed sites. 

Historic Precedents. 

It is interesting to remember that in the federa-- 
tions that are most quoted in connection with our 
Commonwealth, namely, the Dominion of Canada 
and the United States, the capitals in both cases 
were chosen after much care and deliberation. 
When Upper and Lower Canada were re-united in 
1840. it was left to the Governor-General to select 
the new 

Canadian Capital. 

Lord Sydenham chose Kingston. It was a most 
undesirable place. Charles Dickens, who visited 

RKVunr of RiYiawa, 
JVLT SO. 1902. 



it shortly after its selection, -^vrcte: •'One-half of 
It appears to be burnt down, and the other half 
not built up." Three years subsequently Parlia- 
ment, by a large majority, fixed the seat of Govern- 
ment at Montreal. Montreal did not seem to ap- 
preciate the honour, and misbehaved itself sadly. 
In 1849 the mob, resenting the passage of a certain 
Bill, sacked and burnt down Parliament House. 
Then Parliament met at Toronto and Quebec alter- 
nately every four years until, in 1858, the late 
Queen Victoria, at the request of Parliament, 
selected Ottawa. There was at first intense local 
hostility displayed at the decision by disappointed 
advocates of other sites, but this feeling was 
overcome in time. The following year the public 
buildings were begun, and about five years later 
were occupied by Parliament and the various de- 
partments. In 1867, when Confederation was 
achieved, the buildings were taken over, and 
Ottawa became the capital of the Dominion. 
Ottawa in 1861 had a population of 14,500. Twenty 
years later the population was 27,500, and now it is 

Washington was selected as the Federal 
capital of the United States after pro- 
longed and bitter contentions extending over 
no less than seven years. It was, in- 
deed, declared by a leading New England states- 
man that the animosities growing out of the ques- 
tion might split the union. At the Constitutional 
Convention of 1787 it was agreed that Congress 
should have exclusive jurisdiction over the district 
to be used as a permanent seat of Government. 
This district was not to exceed ten miles square, 
whereas, in the Commonwealth Constitution, it is 
stipulated that the area of the Federal territory 
must be not less than ten miles square. 
A score or more localities in various parts 
of the United States contended for the honour. 
In 1789 a motion to place the capital at 
Grermanstown, Pennsylvania, passed both Houses 
of Congress, and was finally only lost because the 
Senate adjourned before having time to consider a 
slight amendment which the Representatives had 
made to the original Bill. The next year it was 
agreed that Philadelphia should be the capital till 
1800. Then Congress, by very narrow majorities 
in both Chambers, agreed to the Potomac site, 
where Washington now stands. Many members 
declared they woTild rather not attend the sessions 
than go so far. According to one historian, lam- 
pooners described the spot on the Potomac as "a 
howling, malarious wilderness." President Wash- 
ington, who was at the zenith of his popularity, 
was given extraordinary latitude in the choice of 
a site. He was permitted to plant the city any- 
where within an area about eighty miles in length. 
" The father of his country," like Romulus of old. 

is described by Adams as pacing off in person the 
metes and bounds of the city to which his name 
was subsequently given. The greater part of the 
site was a morass well nigh impassable, and when 
the machinery of Government was moved there it 
was merely " a backwoods settlement in the wilder- 
ness." In 1814, during the second war with Great 
Britain, it wa.'? captured by British troops, and 
the public buildings burned. In 1839 it was " a 
large straggling village reared in a drained 
swamp," and as late as 1871 its condition was de- 
plorable. One writer says: "The public buildings 
and grounds were neglected. The streets were 
deep in mud or clouded with dust, the unbuilt por- 
tions were morasses, and the sewerage was worse 
than useless." All this has now been changed, 
and Washington and its suburbs has a population 
of 280,000. Such was the progress made in one 
century! What shall the capital of the Australian 
Commonwealth be in a hundred years? 

A Leofislative Pilgrimagfe, 

The tour of the proposed sites by the House 
of Representatives occupied more than a fort- 
night. In the course of their wanderings they 
covered 2,171 miles by rail, 404 by coach, and 126 
by sea. Amongst the chief points to be con- 
sidered in selecting a capital are water 
supply, climate, facilities for drainage, supply of 
building material, picturesqueness, accessibility, 
nature of soil, etc. Then the cost of resumption 
is very important. To the minds of many the 
area of the site should be immensely greater than 
the minimum imposed by the constitution. The 
larger the area the better for many reasons, and 
if suitable virgin territory could be secured the 
cost of purchase would not be so great, especially 
as all Crown lands must be granted to the Com- 
monwealth without payment. 

Orange, or Canoblas, was the first site 
inspected by the Representatives. The posi- 
tion is fairly central. It is almost 200 
miles west of Sydney. The distance by rail from 
Melbourne is 481 miles, from Adelaide 963 miles, 
and from Brisbane 915 miles. The altitude is 
some 3,000 feet, the rainfall averages 39% inches, 
and the climate is agreeable, the mean summer 
temperature being 63 degrees, and during the 
other months the thermometer averages 46 de- 
grees. The site is described as well watered 
by springs and creeks, but some authorities un- 
favourably compare the water supply of Canoblas 
with that of Bathurst and other suggested sites. 
There is an abundance of red volcanic soil, varying 
in quality, and stated to be particularly adapted to 
the growth of English fruits. To the Represen- 
tatives' party Orange will be chiefly associated 
with the ascent of what is known locally as the 



July 20, jgo2. 

Old Man Canablas, a mountain peak that 
rises over 4,600 feet above sea level. It 
was a bright, clear day. There was a 
picturesque drive along a tree-sheltered road 
that climbed the mountain, skirting several awe- 
inspiring precipices. This road went to within 
a few hundred feet of the top; the remainder of 
the journey to the summit was done on foot. 
Sixty miles distant many towns were discernible, 
a view of surpassing grandeur, the horizon in- 
cluding Orange and Bathurst; round the foot of 
the mountain the country was dotted with smiling 
homesteads, and in the foreground were the forest- 
clad mountain slopes. Looking down on the loca- 
tion proposed for the Federal capital, each of the 
party must have thought, What a splendid posi- 
tion for a city! Prudence suggested that other con- 
ditions than fine scenery were essential, and that, 
picturesque as Orange is, a better might be found 
even in that respect. 

Two other Western sites were inspected, 
namely, Lyndh'urst, or Carcoa- Garland, and 
Bathurst, each of which is less than thirty 
miles from Orange. The climate of Carcoa- 
Garland is but slightly warmer than that of 
Orange, and the rainfall very little less. In 
Bathurst the summer and spring temperature is 
about 84 degrees, and for the other months it is 
62 degrees, whilst the rainfall is 24% inches. Both 
sites are at an altitude of over 2,000 feet. Much 
of the Bathurst area, including the town, is within 
the hundred miles' limit of Sydney. Advocates 
of the site answer this objection by pointing out 
that the New South Wales statute in reference to 
distances directs that these are in all cases to ba 
determined by the nearest practicable road, and 
that by such measurement Bathurst is 124 milea 
from Sydney. Furthermore, if the measurement 
be taken from the usual starting place — the obelisk 
In Macquarie Place — instead of from " the west 
boundary of the city of Sydney," Bathurst would 
be found to be outside the 100 miles* radius " in a 
straight line on a horizontal plane," to quote thft 
Imperial Interpretation Act. The cost of resum- 
ing even a comparatively small area at Orange or 
Bathurst would be very great, if the municipalitie? 
were included. To take in these municipalities is 
thought by many to be not at all necessary, and an 
extended area might then be secured that would 
comprise portions of the Canoblas, Lyndhurst and 
Bathurst sites. 

The only northern site visited was Armidale, 
where the proposed Federal territory is a plateau, 
125 square miles in area and over 3,200 feet above 
sea level. The land is good, and Is now exclusively 
In the hands of squatters; the climate is healthy, 
and 100 miles to the East is Coffs Harbour, which, if 
Armidale were selected, could be made the Federal 

port. The chance of Armidale being selected is 
undoubtedly lessened by its position. In the case 
of almost every site there were local enthusiasts 
who, by a peculiar process of reasoning, persuaded 
themselves — and tried to persuade the visitors — 
that the particular site they favoured was the 
geographical centre of the Commonwealth. 
Each site was also described as certain 
to become the future centre of population. 
Eventually the party wondered if these 
centres were movable, and shifted about to 
correspond with their travels. Any argument 
will not, however, cause many Federal members to 
forget that Armidale is 313 miles north of Sydney. 
The site would suit Queensland and New South 
Wales members, but Victorians, South Australians 
and men from other States are not likely to vote 
in favour of a site that they consider so much out 
of the way. 

Having inspected the sites mentioned, the Rep- 
resentatives' party spent two days in Sydney, where 
they were most hospitably entertained by the State 

A Federal Port. 

The Parliamentary pilgrims next travelled 
by train southward to Nowra. The railway 
runs mostly along the coast, close to the sea, 
through rich agricultural and mining districts, the 
journey being probably the most picturesque train 
trip that can be taken in the Commonwealth. 
From Nowra there was a fifteen-mile drive 
to the capacious harbour of Jervis Bay. 
This is a magnificent land-locked sheet of water, 
but virtually unused by shipping except as a haven 
of refuge. In the absence of rail communication 
there is no inducement for vessels to visit its 
sparsely inhabited shores. It was desirable that 
the party should see Jervis Bay, because it might 
be used as the port of Goulbum or of Lake George 
if either of these sites were chosen. When we 
reached the bay the New South Wales Government 
steam yacht "Victoria was lying at anchor some dis- 
tance from the shore, whilst her boats were waiting 
to row us on bord. It was evening, and there was 
no room for the whole party to spend the night 
on board the Victoria. Outside the heads the 
Victoria met the s.s. Wakatipu, to which vessel 
most of us were transferred. The next morning 
both steamers entered Twofold Bay; and Eden, 
perched on a green patch on the side of the hille 
overhanging the water, looked as though it were 
Indeed well named. The water was intensely blue, 
the air fresh and bracing, and the whole scene 
brightened by the glory of a cloudless sun. Was 
this the entrance to the promised land? On the 
side of the bay opposite Eden, and about a mile 
distant, stand the ruins of Boydtown, about which 
there are strange and romantic associations. 

Rkvibw oy Bbvibws, 
Jni-T 20, 1902. 



Boydtown takes its name from its founder, who 
came from America, and was possessed of much 
wealth. The story goes that some sixty years 
ago Mr. Boyd sailed his yacht into Twofold Bay, 
then merely the home of a few whalers. He was 
entranced with its beauty, and was so impressed 
with the harbourage and position of the bay that he 
got the idea that the place was going to be of 
great importance in the future of Australia. He 
formed a company with a capital of a quarter of a 
million pounds and secured extensive tracts of 
land by buying sheep at sixpence a head, and 
having the stations given in. He got Kanakas 
as shepherds, but neither he nor they knew any- 
thing about sheep farming. Wild dogs played 
havoc amongst the flocks, and Boydtown did not 

A TragfeHy* 

The fate of Mr. Boyd is still a mystery. 
He sailed from California in 1850 in a brigantine, 
armed with brass guns, named the Wanderer, and 
when anchored off an island in the Solomon group 
supposed to be uninhabited, Mr. Boyd went ashore 
with some of the Kanaka crew. He did not re- 
turn, and an armed boat was sent from the Wan- 
derer to make inquiries. Mr. Boyd could not be 
found. The marks of his knees were seen on the 
ground as if there had been a struggle, and also 
some gun wadding, which had evidently fallen out 
of his pocket. A search was made, but nothing 
further was discovered to clear up the mystery. 
The Wanderer set sail, but was wrecked shortly 
after on the Australian coast. Facts that subse- 
quently came to light caused it to be believed that 
Mr. Boyd was detained on the island by the natives 
In order that he might teach them some of the arts 
of the white man, and that he was hidden on the 
arrival of any vessels. This theory was strength- 
ened because of there being no blood stains where 
the struggle took place. It was stated that as the 
isl . -I v.-as approached by sea natives were often 
observed, through a telescope, forcibly hurrying 
away a curiously dressed individual as if apxioua 
to place him in hiding, and this man was said to 
be the unfortunate founder of Boydtown. A 
vessel sent many years later to the island by Sir 
William Denison (then Governor of New South 
Wales) found trees and rocks marked with the 
word " Boyd," but the natives denied any know- 
ledge of Mr Boyd, and nothing further could ever 
be learned regarding him. Even s,tranger stories 
than this are told at Eden of the ending of Mr. 
Boyd's remarkable career, but what is known ther« 
of him is mostly legend. The particulars in thii 
article were told to the writer in Melbourne by on© 
who was a personal friend of Mr. Boyd in Cali- 
fornia. The ruins of Boydtown are not 
without interest. There is a caretaker in 

the hotel, which, like all the other buildings in the 
place, was erected by Mr. Boyd. It was evidently 
splendidly fitted up, and in one room there is the 
remains of a fine billiard-table. Someone has said 
that the first institution to be established in a new 
town in America is a saloon, in England a church, 
and in Australia a racecourse. Mr. Boyd supplied 
not only the American, but also the British, re- 
quirement. The church, which has a substantial 
tower, was never used. In its vicinity are three 
or four graves nearly overgrown by grass, but 
giving simple annals of those who more than half 
a century ago found their last resting-place in 
Boydtown. There are also the ruins of a store 
and the private residence of Mr. Boyd. There is 
on one of the headlands at the entrance to Twofold 
Bay an excellently constructed lighthouse erected 
by Mr. Boyd. It was never allowed to be lighted, 
as, if this were permitted, the Government would 
be under the obligation of keeping it lighted, and 
there is another lighthouse on the other side of 
the harbour. It is now used only as a shelter 
by a few whalers who still carry on their pursuit 
in the locality. Another object that attracts the 
stranger's attention is an old two-story house, from 
which the doors and windows have disappeared, 
that is perched on a crag like an eagle's nest. It 
was for years the home of Mr. Brierly, the landscape 
painter, but it has now been deserted and unin- 
habited for years. 

The drive to Bombala disclosed valleys on each 
Bide of the road that in wealth of ferns and beau- 
tiful foliage almost rival even the far-famed fem- 
tree gullies of Victoria. There are plenty of 
running streams and bird-life, the note of the bell- 
bird being constantly heard. Between Pambula 
and Bombala for five miles the road climbs the Big 
Jack Mountain, amidst magnificent scenery. Bom- 
bala is about forty miles from Eden. It is nearly 
equi-distant in a direct line from Sydney and Mel- 
bourne. It is on a tableland averaging 2,400 feet 
above sea level. The thermometer ranges from 
an average of 66 deg. in the summer to 43 deg. in 
the winter, and the rainfall is 29 inches. 

About forty miles to the north-west is Dalgety, 
or Buckley's Crossing, where the Snowy River 
flows in a great volume along its winding course. 
Its water has not the brown muddy appearance of 
most Australian rivers. It is as clear as crystal, 
for it runs over a stony bed, and, being snow-fed, 
it is icy cold, and has even more water in summer 
than in winter. In the distance there is that giant 
amongst Australian mountains, snow-capped Ko- 
sciusko. There are many who hold that it is 
essential that the Federal territory should contain 
a port. It is not desirable that the capital should 
be on the sea. where it could be attacked by hostile 



July 20, 1902. 

cruisers; but many reasons are advanced why 
there should be access to it by sea as well as by 
land. If Bombala were selected as the Federal 
Capital, the territory to be acquired by the Com- 
monwealth should comprise Eden and all the 
country to the Victorian border. This would be 
a self-contained area. A portion of it is Crown 
land, and the average improved per acre value 
is estimated to be £3. One of the strongest ob- 
jections to Bombala is the huge expenditure its 
selection would entail. A breakwater, to cost some 
£400.000, at Twofold Bay is stated to be necessary, 
and the cost of railway connection with Melbourne, 
Sydney, and Eden would be immense. Yet the 
New South Wales Commissioner, Mr. Oliver, in his 
report on the proposed sites, considers that South- 
ern Monaro is entitled to first position amongst the 
places suggested. He does this on the merits of 
the district and " having regard to the future, 
rather than the initial, requirements of the Com- 

Other Sites. 

The next site visited was Queanbeyan, which 
has much to recommend it, and favourably im- 
pressed many members. Queanbeyan ought to be 
considered in conjunction with Bungendore, or 
Lake George, from which it is some fifteen or 
twenty miles distant. The locality seemed to be 
suffering severely from the effects of the drought. 
Forests of ring-barked trees, standing bare and 
white, like so many skeletons, added to the general 
air of desolation. Still, the land is said to be some 
of the finest for agricultural purposes in the State. 
Of the lake, which on the occasion of the Repre- 
sentatives' visit was dry, except for some shallow 
water near the centre, Mr. Oliver writes: " The 
lake is a large expanse of more or less brackish 
water when at high level, and a large expanse of 
saline mud when at its lowest; sometimes partially 
covered with the weed known as Fat Hen, and a 
salinous creeper; and the catchment is limited in 
extent." Mr. Oliver considers that if, notwith- 
standing its limited catchment, the basin of the 
lake, or a portion of it, could be converted 
into a reservoir, its value to the Common- 
wealth territory would be much greater than 
to any part of New South Wales. In a 
valley in another part of the territory a reservoir 
of fresh water of vast extent could, it is claimed, be 
constructed without difficulty. Both schemes, it is 
estimated, would cost less than £400,000. If all this 
work were done, the whole appearance of the coun- 
try, and even the rainfall, would be improved. Be- 
fore judgment be passed on Lake George as a site 
for a Federal Capital, the feasibility of these pro- 
jects would have to be tested by independent ex- 

Through a Fog! 

At Goulbum the party had a novel experience. 
On their arrival a dense fog prevailed, in which it 
was impossible to see for more than a few yards' 
■distance. Local enthusiasts insisted on taking 
members to view the site, and in order to be agree- 
able the party complied, feeling all the time that 
it was the big joke of the tour. Members were 
induced to climb a hill, unknowing the height, but 
as they painfully toiled upward through the fog, 
and as, after half an hour's exertion, the top 
,sfeemed no nearer and the fog no thinner, they 
felt that the undertaking had gone beyond a joke. 
It was found, however, that the mountain rose 
above the mist, and that at the summit the atmo- 
sphere was quite clear. Nothing could be seen 
but a great sea of clouds all around, with the tops 
of hills standing out here and there like islands. 
The fog had just begun to disappear in patches 
disclosing paddocks, houses, and other features of 
the landscape, when we had to hurry away, as the 
train was waiting. That was what we saw of the 
Goulbum site. 

Yass was next inspected. An abundant supply 
of water can be obtained at Yass from the Mur- 
rumbidgee. Mr. Oliver considers Yass the most 
eligible amongst South-Westem sites. 

Three other sites were inspected — namely, Tu- 
mut, Wagga Wagga, and Albury. Albury has the 
advantage of being situated on the Murray, and 
the site would border on Victoria; but exception 
has been taken by some to the climate. Wagga 
Wagga has the Murrumbidgee, and that is not by 
any means the only good feature that can be men- 
tioned in support of its claims. As regards Tumut, 
there was not one of the party who did not express 
admiration of the beauties of its scenery, its rich 
lands, and its plantations of healthy, well-matured 
English trees. Tumut, indeed, seemed almost in- 
tended to be a beautiful garden rather than a site 
for a busy, crowded city. The Tumut River would 
provide an ample water supply. It is a strong 
stream, that runs all the year round between banks 
picturesquely clothed with luxuriant vegetation. 
Within the limits of this article, written at the 
request of the editor of the " Review of Reviews," 
it would be impossible to do justice to all, or even 
any one, of the sites visited. There is not one ot 
the localities suggested that has not many recom- 
mendations, and the difficulty that the Federal 
Parliament has to face is to pick the best out of so 
many suitable sites. Few, if any, of the members 
of either Federal House have yet definitely com- 
mitted themselves in favour of any site. The trip 
has given them a good idea of the nature of the 
country in each district, but other information that 
can only be obtained from experts is necessary 
before making the final selection. 

Bbvibw of RSVIKWS, 
July 20. 1902. 




A melancholy and pathetic interest attaches 
to the volume which Mr. Herbert Spencer has 
just published. The preface, which is dated Brigh- 
ton, March, 1902, concludes with the following sen- 
tence: — " The volume herewith issued I can say 
with certainty will be my last." 

Mr. Herbert Spencer is now eighty-two years old. 
He is the last survivor of the giants of the Vic- 
torian era, the only philosopher with a world-wide 
reputation now existing in the English-speaking 
world. In this volume of " Facts and Comments" 
we have the last ripe fruit from an old tree, which, 
for two generations, has been a tree of knowledge 
from which mankind has gathered many of those 
words of wisdom that Solomon described as apples 
of gold set in pictures of silver. 

It is sad to think that, instead of setting like a 
victorious summer sun, surrounded by radiant 
clouds illumined by the splendour of the depart- 
ing luminary, Mr. Spencer should be taking leave 
of the world in the midst of a depressing gloom. 
Mankind, instead of profiting by his words of warn- 
ing and counsel, seems to him to be rapidly retro- 
grading through barbarism to slavery. The old 
man eloquent raises a bitter cry: " We have la- 
boured in vain, and spent our strength for nought." 
And in this collection of miscellaneous essays we 
have the last soliloquies from the full heart of a 
teacher whose disciples have forgotten his instruc- 
tions and are more inclined to slay the prophet 
than to give heed to his teachings. 

Instead of noticing each of these essays in due or- 
der, I think it would be more interesting to the 
reader to make extracts from them, throwing them 
Into the form of soliloquies, so that we can, as It 
were, hear Mr. Spencer discoursing to us of the 
world and the things that are therein, from the 
standpoint of an octogenarian who sees before him 
the grave into which he must, ere long, descend. 
In making this abstract, however, the sequence of 
ideas has necessarily, in many cases, been greatly 

A Meditation on Approachingf Death. 

" For years past, when watching the unfolding 
buds in the spring, there has arisen the thought — 
' Shall I ever again see the buds unfold? Shall I 
ever again be awakened at dawn by the scng of 
the thrush?* It seems a strange and repugnant 

*" Facts and Comments," by Herbert Spencer. Lon- 
jdon: Williams and Norgate, 1902. 205 pp. Price, 6s. 

conclusion that, with the cessation of conscious- 
ness at death, there ceases to be any knowledge 
cf having existed. With his last breath it be- 
comes to each the same thing as though he had 
never lived. . . . What becomes of consciousness 
when it ends? We can only infer that it is a 
specialised and individualised form of that Infinite 
and Eternal Energy which transcends both our 
knowledge and our imagination; and that at death 
its elements lapse into the Infinite and Eternal 
Energy whence they were derived. 

The Recreations of an Invalid. 

" Tethered by ill-health to the south of Eng- 
land, I have, since 1889, spent the greater part 
of the summer of each year in a country house — 
mostly that of some gentleman farmer whose 
family and surroundings fulfilled the needful con- 
ditions, one being the presence of young people. 
Taking in my daily drives two ladies as com- 
panions, and being generally unable to bear con- 
tinuous conversation, I put a check on this by ask- 
ing one or other question not to be answered 
without thought. The practice thus originated 
became established, and it has since been my habit 
to set problems, partly by way of gauging the 
knowledge of yotmg people, and partly by way of 
exercising their reasoning powers. ... In attempted 
answers to these questions the noteworthy fact 
has been the undeveloped idea of causation im- 
plied. Not so much that the answers were wrong, 
but that they betrayed no conception of a rele- 
vant cause, was the startling revelation. . . . 
Evidently minds left in the implied states are 
seed-beds for superstitions. . . . The most absurd 
dogmas readily find lodgment where no knowledge 
has been acquired of the order of nature." 

The Illogic of the Nose. 

" Among those now living few remember how, 
in the early fifties, there was widely disseminated 
the idea, naturally arising and readily accepted, 
that fevers of one or other kind are produced by 
noisome odours — stinks and stenches. . . . After 
the usual style of reasoning, which proceeds by the 
method of agreement unchecked by the method of 
difference, it was concluded that as these two 
things habitually went together, the one was the 
cause of the other. . . . The verdicts of the nostrils 
were willingly assumed to be verified by statistics. 
And yet the counter-evidence was overwhelming. 



July 20, jgo2. 

. . . Places which, according to current sanitary 
doctrines, ought to be centres of disease, prove to 
be quite healthful — so healthful, indeed, that in- 
valids frequently take lodgings in farm-houses 
where they are exposed to these products of de- 
caying excreta. . . . How is it that beliefs so con- 
spicuously fallacious have been established, and 
are maintained by central and local authorities 
and their employes? There has developed a bu- 
reaucracy which has an interest in keeping up 
these delusions; and the members of which, indi- 
vidually, have interests in insisting upon these 
needless expenditures. . . . The multiplication of 
sanitary requirements often arrests the building 
of small houses. As a sequence of this law-made 
deficiency of house accommodation, there has been 
growing louder a complaint about the ' houseless 
poor.' " 

The Sequences of Vaccination. 

" ' When once you interfere with the order of 
Nature there is no knowing where the results will 
end.' Vaccination is an interference with the order 
of Nature which has various sequences other than 
that counted upon. . . . The mortality caused by 
eight specified diseases, either directly communi- 
cable, or exacerbated by the effects of vaccina- 
tion, increased more than double. It is clear that 
far more were killed by these other diseases than 
were saved from small-pox. There are evidences 
of a general relative debility. Measles is a severer 
disease than it used to be, and deaths from it are 
very numerous. Influenza yields proof. Sixty 
years ago, when at long intervals an epidemic oc- 
curred, it seized but few, was not severe, and left 
no serious sequelae ; now it is permanently estab- 
lished, affects multitudes in extreme forms, and 
often leaves damaged constitutions. The disease 
is the same, but there is less ability to withstand 
it. There are other significant facts. It is a fa- 
miliar biological truth that the organs of sense and 
the teeth arise out of the dermal layer of the 
embryo. . . . Syphilis in its earlier stages is a skin 
disease. When it is inherited the effects are mal- 
formation of teeth. May it not be thus with 
another skin disease — that which vaccination 
gives? If so, we have an explanation of the 
frightful degeneracy of teeth among young people 
in recent times." 

The Fallacy of Gymnastics. 

" Belief in the virtues of gymnastics, widespread 
and indeed almost universal, embodies several 
grave errors. . . . Muscularity, and the putting out 
of great mechanical force, are no measures of 
strength in that sense of the word which chiefly 
concerns men. Such power of limb as results 
from the daily activities of boyhood — say, the 

ability, even in early youth, to walk more than 
forty miles in a day (I speak from personal expe- 
rience)— is quite enough in preparation for the 
contingencies of ordinary life, and of life deviat- 
ing a good deal from the ordinary. ... As certain 
OS it is that a country walk through fine scenery 
is more invigorating than an equal number of 
steps up and down a hall, so certain is it that the 
muscular activity of a game, accompanied by the 
ordinary exhilaration, invigorates more than the 
same amount of muscular activity in the shape of 
gymnastics. . . . Alike among early civilised races 
and among barbarians, war originated gymnastics, 
and the theory and practice of gymnastics have all 
along remained congruous with the militant type 
of society. Sut with the advance towards a peace- 
ful state of society, coercive and ascetic culture 
loses its fitness." 

Music Teachers the Gjrmpters of Music 

" Music is now regarded as an intellectual exer- 
cise. The avowed theory of Wagner was that the 
purpose of music is to teach. Thus are perverted 
beliefs having their roots in the prevailing enor- 
mous error respecting the constitution of mind. 
In proportion as the listener, instead of being a 
passive recipient, becomes an active interpreter, 
in that proportion does he lose the kind of con- 
sciousness which it is the purpose of the art to 
produce. The primary purpose of music is neither 
Instruction nor culture, but pleasure, and this is 
an all-sufficient purpose. Music performers and 
teachers of music are corrupters of music. The 
I>erformers desire less to render faithfully the 
meanings of the pieces they play than to exhibit 
their powers of execution, vitiate the music and 
the tastes of their hearers. This vitiation is one ot 
the indirect results of the aim on the part of pro- 
fessionals not to render most perfectly the ideas 
of the composer, but so to play as to increase their 
own earnings." 

Athanasius G>ntra Mundum. 

" EJarly in life it became a usual experience with 
me to stand in a minority — often a small minority, 
approaching sometimes to a minority of one. At a 
time when State education was discussed more as 
a matter of speculative interest than as a matter 
of so-called practical politics, I found myself op- 
posed to nearly everyone in expressing disap- 
proval — a disapproval which has continued until 
now. As interference with the supply and demand 
of commodities is mischievous, so is interference 
with the supply and demand of cultured faculty. 
. . . Education, artificially pressed forward, rais- 
ing in the labouring and artisan classes ambitions 
to enter upon higher careers, led, through frequent 
disappointments, to bad courses, and sometimes to 

REnsw OF Reviews, 
Jdlt 20, 1902. 



crime. . . . Society is not beneflted, but injured, 
by artificially increasing intelligence, without re- 
gard to character. 

The Press as the Nemesis of Compulsory 

" To measure the influence for good or evil 
which a forced intellectual culture produces on a 
nation, there is no better way than to contemplate 
the teachings of the daily press, and to observe 
the. effects wrought. . . . The slumbering instincts 
of the barbarian have been awakened by a de- 
moralised press, which would have done com- 
paratively little had not the artificial spread of in- 
tellectual culture brought the masses under its in- 
fluence. ... In the present war we have indisput- 
able proof that the nation has been habitually de- 
luded by garbled reports. . . . For the war fever 
which has broken out, and is working immense 
mischiefs, not abroad only, but in our social state, 
has resulted from daily breathing an atmosphere 
of untruth. Immense evils may result if intellec- 
tuallsation is pushed in advance of moralisa- 
tlon. . . . 

In Praise of Laissez-faire. 

" The notion is widely held that we must either 
aid or prevent. There is no recognition of that 
passive policy which does neither the one nor the 
other, but leaves things to take their natural 
course. What has been said above does not imply 
that the working classes shall be kept in ignor- 
ance, but merely that enlightenment shall spread 
among them after the same manner that it has 
spread among the upper and middle classes, being 
privately aided so far as philanthropic feelings 
prompt, for such feelings and their results are 
parts of the normal educational agency, operative 
alike on giver and receiver. ... If supply and de- 
mand are allowed free play in the intellectual 
sphere as in the economic sphere, and no hin- 
drance is put in the way of the naturally su- 
perior, education must have an effect widely diffe- 
rent from that described — there will be a multipli- 
cation of the fittest instead of a multiplication of 
the unfittest." 

The Overvaluation of Intelligfence. 

" When it is said that the brain is the organ of 
the mind, it is assumed that the brain is chiefly, if 
not wholly, the organ of the intellect. The error 
is an enormous one. The chief component of mind 
is feeling. Mind, properly interpreted, is co-ex- 
tensive with consciousness. All parts of conscious- 
ness are parts of mind. The emotions are the 
masters; the intellect is the servant. The over- 
valuation of intelligence necessarily has for its 
concomitant the under-valuation of the emotional 

nature. Considered in respect of their fitness for 
life, individual and social, those in whom the altru- 
istic sentiments predominate are far superior to 
those who, with powers of perception and reason- 
ing of the highest kind, join anti-social feelings, 
unscrupulous egoism, and disregard of fellow- 
men. . . . 

Why Admire ** Transcendent Criminals ** ? 

" A society wicked in the extreme may be formed 
of men who in keenness of intellect rank with 
Mephistopheles; and, conversely, though its mem- 
bers are stupid and unprogressive, a society may 
be full of happiness if its members are scrupulously 
regardful of one another's claims, and actively 
sympathetic. This proposition, though almost a 
truism, is little regarded. Full recognition of its 
truth would make men honour, much more than 
they do, the unobtrusively good, and think less of 
those whose merit is intellectual ability. There 
would, for example, be none of the unceasing ad- 
miration for that transcendent criminal. Napo- 
leon. An over-valuation of teaching is necessarily 
a concomitant of this erroneous interpretation of 
mind. Everywhere the cry is — educate, educate, 
educate! But improving the servant, the intellect, 
does but give the masters, the emotions, more 
power of achieving their ends." 

Social Progress Falsely So-called. 

" I detest that conception of social progress 
which presents as its aim increase of population, 
growth of wealth, spread of commerce. Instead 
of an immense amount of life of low type, I would 
far sooner see half the amount of life of a high 
type. Increase in the swarms of people whose ex- 
istence is subordinated to material development, 
is rather to be lamented than to be rejoiced over. 
A state in which our advance is measured by 
spread of manufactures and a concomitant produc- 
tion of such regions as the Black Country, is a 
state to be emerged from as quickly as may be. 
It is a state which in sundry respects compares ill 
with the past, and is far from that which we may 
hope will be attained in the future. This over- 
running of the old by the new strikes me afresh 
with every summer sojourn in the country, and 
deepens my regret. Often, when among the Scotch 
mountains, I have pleased myself with the thought 
that their sides can never be brought under the 
plough. Here, at least. Nature must ever remain 
unsubdued. In such places one may forget for a 
while the prosaic aspects of civilisation. An Ame- 
rican lady, after staying for some time in England, 
expressed to me an opinion that a country with- 
out ruined castles and abbeys is not worth living 
in. I fully understood her feeling, and to a con- 
siderable extent sympathised with her. Though 



July 20, ip02. 

intensely modern, and having but small respect 
for ancient ideas and institutions, I have great 
pleasure in contemplating the remains bequeathed 
by the times that are gone." 

Sic Transit Gloria Mundi. 

" As in numerous parts of the earth appropriated 
by us, the native races are being improved out of 
existence, so at home the progress of improvement 
is yearly leaving less and less of the things vrhich 
made the country attractive. Under the western 
end of the South Downs, where I have taken up my 
abode this season, daily drives show me beauties 
future generations will not see. The vast hedges 
overrun with clematis and bryony and wild hop, 
are not tolerated by the advanced agriculturist. 
All of them seem fated to go, and to leave only 
post and rail or wire fences, or dwarf closely- 
cropped hedges. Cottage roofs of thatch are being 
everywhere replaced by slate or tiled roofs, and 
there is a gradual disappearance of half-wooden 
houses. Nowadays it is a rare thing to find 
gleaners, and in many parts of the country the 
gathering of mushrooms is forbidden. No longer, 
en passing a bam on a winter's day, may one 
hear the alternating thuds of the Sails, and no 
longer may one be awakened on a bright morn- 
ing in June by the sharpening of scythes — a sound 
so disagreeable in itself, but made so delightful 
by its associations. This disappearance of rem- 
nants and traces of earlier forms of life, intrinsi- 
cally picturesque as well as picturesque by asso- 
ciation, will deprive posterity of much of the poetry 
which now relieves the prose of life. The ro- 
mance of the past is being extinguished by the 
dull realities of the present." 

The False God Appearance. 

" While the art of living is recognised as a sub- 
ject which concerns everyone, there is no delibe- 
rate study of it, haphazard thoughts occupying the 
place of rational conclusions. The result is that 
all lives are more or less distorted, usually very 
much distorted. There is one pursuit which nearly 
all suppose may be carried on without limit — the 
pursuit of beauty, or rather the pursuit of pretti- 
ness. From the American lady whose idea seems 
to be — men must work that women may dress, 
down to the British kitchenmaid, whose pleasure 
during the week is in the thought of ^Ting with 
her mistress on Sunday, the ambition which goes 
before all others is to satisfy the aesthetic want; 
or rather, to obtain the admiration which is a 
concomitant, or expected concomitant. . . . Thus 
appearance will tend ever to become a primary 
end, and use a secondary end; as with the savage 
"Who struts about in a mantle in fine weather, 
but takes it off when it rains. This making of ap- 

pearance an end supreme over other ends affects 
the house at large and the course of domestic af- 

The Sacrifice of the Essentials. 

" For instance, note the numerous pretty things, 
or things supposed to be pretty, which burden 
the tables, the minor pieces of furniture, the 
brackets, and so on. The pleasure derived from 
them, whether by owner or guest, is practically 
nominal. Thej' are, in their multitude, constant 
sources of vexation. . . . Beauty is not attained 
by filling a room with beautiful things. . . . You 
may have an artistic interior, or you may have 
a museum, but you cannot have both. . . . This ab- 
sorbing pursuit of aesthetic ends betrays a moral 
attitude of an inferior kind. Over-ornamented 
rooms are even more numerous than over-dressed 
women. In cooking, palatableness and digesti- 
bility are sacrificed to a trivial and transitory 
achievement of good appearance. In every de- 
partment the lack of due proportioning of the 
various ends of life is exemplified in the fact that 
the aesthetic ends occupy far too large an area of 
consciousness. Life is distorted by the distract- 
ing of attention from essentials." 

Always Discount Opinions* 

" Speaking broadly, we may say that the world 
is always wrong, more or less, in its judgments of 
men — errs by excess or defect. Hence, a way of 
discounting opinions is desirable. . . . All move- 
ment is rhythmical, that of opinion included. After 
going to one extreme, a reaction in course of time 
carries it to the other extreme, and then comes 
eventually a re-reaction. We ought constantly to 
contemplate the rh3rthm,and try to see whereabouts 
in it we are, feeling sure that the opinion which 
prevails is never quite right, and that only after 
numerous actions and reactions may it settle into 
the rational mean." 

The difficulty of appreciating exactly where we 
are in the rhythm, and the impossibility of arriv- 
ing at a scientific estimate of the precise action 
or reaction of which we are the victims, may be in- 
ferred from what Mr. Spencer has to say on the 
subject of party Grovernment: — 

How Local Option Brought on the "War 
in South Africa. 

" Tremendous results frequently follow small 
and apparently irrelevant causes. . . . The action 
of Sir William Harc^urt in making local option a 
plank in the Liberal platform at the last general 
election (but one) resulted in an overwhelming 
defeat. The mass of electors did not care a straw 
about Home Rule, but they cared greatly about 
the threatened interference with the sale of beer. 


JuiiT 20, 1902. 



Of the multitudinous sequences of all kinds since 
witnessed, let me first indicate the most con- 
spicuous set. An ambitious man of despotic tem- 
per, who in the Birmingham municipal govern- 
ment had learned the art of subordinating others, 
and had by ability and audacity forced himself to 
the front in the central Government, became Colo- 
nial Secretary. That his determination to have 
his own way was the cause of the still-progressing 
war in South Africa no one now doubts. The re- 
sults . . . ramify everyv/here into unimaginable 
complications, infinite in number, world-wide in 
reach. . . . All of them were initiated by a small 
and utterly irrelevant shibboleth." 

Another result was the adoption of the system 
of doles by which those in office benefited their 
friends to the amount of over £3,000,000 a year 
indirectly taken from the pockets of the nation at 

A Counsel of Perfection. 

" Were every member of Parliament true to his 
convictions, these overridings of the national will 
by a few gentlemen in Downing Street would be 
impossible. ... A Ministry would become that 
which its name implies, a servant, instead of being, 
what it is now, a master — a servant, not, as origi- 
nally, of the monarch, but a servant of the House 
and the nation. . . . Political vices have their 
roots in the nature of the people. The ability to 
find candidates who will bind themselves to party 
programmes, and the wish to find such candidates, 
are alike indicative of an average character not 
fitted for truly free institutions. . . . For the 
present there is no probability of anything better, 
but a probability of something worse; for the re- 
trograde movement now going on towards the 
militant social type is inevitably accompanied, not 
by relaxation of authority, but by enforcement of 

How Impefialism Enslaves the G)nqueror. 

" Imperialism leads to slavery, the exercise of 
mastery inevitably entails on the master himself 
some form of slavery more or less pronounced. A 
conqueror who makes a captive a slave must be 
himself tied to the captive while the captive is tied 
to him. Instrumentalities by which the subordi- 
nation of others is effected, themselves subordinate 
the victor, the master, or the ruler. ... A 
society which enslaves other societies enslaves it- 
self. The society of the Roman Empire was 
formed of fighting serfs, working serfs, cultivating 
serfs, official serfs. The emperor was the first 
slave of the ceremonies he imposed. In Prance 
at the present time ninety days annually of the 
average citizen's labour is given to the State under 
compulsion. In England the present permanent 
expenditure on the British army and navy, plus 

the interest on the debt recently contracted, 
amounts to about £76,000,000. It results that 
thirteen and a half days' labour per annum is thus 
imposed on the average citizen as a corvee. . . . 
As fast a-s our growing imperialism augments the 
amount of such compulsory service, the citizen is 
to that extent more and more a serf of the State. 
It will presently come to an actual or potential 
service as a soldier, which often inflicts under the 
guise of fine names a slavery harder than that 
which the negro bears, with the added risk of 
death. So long as the passion for mastery over- 
rides all others, the slavery that goes along with 
imperialism will be tolerated." 

The Drift Towards Despotism. 

" The cardinal trait of fighting peoples is the 
subordination of man to man and of group to 
group. Graduated subordination, which is the 
method of army organisation and the emergence 
from those barbaric types of society evolved by 
chronic militancy, brings v/ith it a decrease of this 
graduated subordination, and an increase of free- 
dom. But the process of re-barbarisation is ac- 
companied by the re-gi'owth of graduated subordi- 
nation. In England the cause has in a large 
measure deprived the individual of what electoral 
freedom he had during the generation following 
the Reform Bill. In the House of Commons this 
retrogressive movement is shown in further ways. 
Ecclesiastical movements show a kindred change. 
There is a return towards that subjection to a 
priesthood characteristic of barbaric types of so- 
ciety. The volunteer movement, well justified un- 
der the circumstances, led to a revived interest in 
war, and the partially dormant instincts of the 
savage, readily aroused, have been exercising 
themselves, if not on actual foes, then on foes con- 
ceived to be invading us. 

Modern Society the Habitat of the Hooligan. 

" The diffusion of military ideas, military senti- 
ments, military organisation, military discipline, 
has been going on everywhere, notably in the Sal- 
vation Army and the Church Army. The temper 
thus generated is shown in the violent attacks 
upon pro-Boers, and the applause given by leading 
newspapers to the police for having judiciously re- 
frained from interfering with the mob in its ill- 
treatment of Stop-the-War speakers. Surely a 
society thus characterised and thus governed is a 
fit habitat for Hooligans. Literature, journalism, 
and art have all been aiding in this process of re- 
barbarisation. As indicating most clearly the state 
of national feeling, we have the immense popu- 
larity of Mr. Rudyard Kipling, in whose writings 
one-tenth of nominal Christianity is joined with 
nine-tenths of real paganism. The literature of 



July 20, igo2. 

the periodicals reeks with violence, and our pic- 
torial newspapers abound with such stimuli to 
brutality that for years past I have deliberately 
avoided looking at the illustrated weekly journals. 
In all places and in all ways there has been going 
on during the past fifty years a recrudescence of 
barbaric ambitions, ideas and sentiments, and an 
unceasing culture of blood-thirst. If there needs 
a striking illustration of the result, we have it in 
the dictum of the people's Laureate that the 
' lordliest life on earth ' is one spent in seeking to 
' bag ' certain of our fellow-men!" 

Regimentation and Re-Barbarisation. 

" Regimentation is a concomitant of re-barbari- 
sation. Great strides have been taken towards a 
regimental organisation for moulding children 
after an approved fashion. Having been prepared 
for life by government, citizens must have their 
activities controlled by law. In place of private 
combinations of men, investing their savings and 
looking for interest — as men at large do — we now 
have municipal organisations which are usurping 
these businesses one after another and entering 
upon more." 

Birmingham has a standing army of 7,800 offi- 
cials; the Glasgow municipality has 13,413 officials; 
and the School Board and parochial authorities 
add 4,000 to this number. 

" In France, beyond the fighting army, the army 
of civil servants (ever increasing) has reached 
nearly 900,000, and when all our businesses have 
been municipalised a larger number will have been 
reached here. . . . The same process is going 
on among artisans and others united into trade 
unions. . . . The men who trample on other 
men's freedom surrender their own freedom while 
doing it. . . . Already these men have made 
themselves semi-slaves to their trade combinations, 
and with the further progress of imperialism, re- 
barbarisation, and regimentation their semi-slavery 
v.'ill end in complete slavery — a state which they 
will fully deserve." 

Dissent as the Saving Salt of the State, 

The same spirit finds expression in the dislike of 
Dissenters, and the irritation expressed by men 
like Matthew Arnold about those who refuse to 
conform to the established pattern of religion. 
Matthew Arnold said that a generation or two out- 
side the Establishment and Puritanism produces 
men of national mark no more. To this Mr. 
Spencer replies: — 

"All the steps in Liberalisation towards noble 
Institutions have not proceeded from those brought 
up under Church discipline, but have proceeded 
either directly or through outside Influences from 

men of Nonconformist origin. ... It would 
seem that Mr. Arnold knows nothing of those great 
revolutions in thought which, in the course of the 
last century, were produced by Priestley, Dalton, 
Young, and Faraday. These men were not only 
men of national mark, but men of world-wide 
mark, men whose discoveries affected the mental 
careers of the scientific culture everywhere, while 
changing the industrial activities of mankind at 
large. During less than a century these four 
English Dissenters did more towards revolutionis- 
ing the world's physical conceptions, and, by con- 
sequence, its activities, than any other four men 
who can be named." 

The Consolations of Old Age. 

" Thirty or forty years ago, at times when my 
nights, always bad, had become unusually bad, I 
sometimes took a dose of morphia, the effect of 
which lasts two days, to re-establish, so far as 
might be, the habit of going to sleep. My sensi- 
bility to tones then became more acute, and there 
was an increased power of appreciating their rela- 
tions and the complexes formed by them. This 
suggests that between the feelings of early life 
and those of late life there is a contrast similar 
to that between the feelings when exalted by si 
nervous stimulant and the feelings in their ordi- 
nary intensity. In the latter part of life there 
arises an inability to receive sensations and emo- 
tions equally vivid with those of youth and early 
manhood. At the last, all the mental powers 
simultaneously ebb as do the bodily powers, and 
with them goes the capacity for emotion in general. 
It is, indeed, possible that in its last stage con- 
sciousness is occupied by a not displeasurable sense 
of rest. Sensations and emotions all gradually 
decrease in intensity before they finally cease. 
Thus the dread of dying, which most people feel, 
is unwarranted." 

The Goodness of the Unknown God* 

" Yet in old age the flagging vitality brings 
more or less mental depression; this depression 
often takes the shape of fears concerning endless 
punishment to be presently borne. To all such 
the man who has rejected this dreadful creed may 
fitly give reasons for doing the like, pointing out 
the blasphemy of supposing that the Power mani- 
fested in 50,000,000 suns with their attendant 
worlds has a nature which in a human being we 
should shrink from with horror. Those on whom 
fears of eternal punishment weigh heavily may 
fitly be shown that, merciless as is the cosmic 
process worked out by an unknown Power, yet 
vengeance is nowhere to be found in it." 


JuLT 20, 1902. 



In Awe of Infinite Space. 

Mr. Spencer's last words on the ultimate question 
relate to the phenomena of space: — 

" This of late years has more frequently im- 
pressed me. Concerning the multitudes of re- 
markable relations among lines and among spaces, 
very few ever ask why are they so. Perhaps the 
question may in later years be raised, as it has 
been in myself, by some of the more conspicuously 
marvellous truths now grouped under the title of 
' The Geometry of Position.' Many of these are so 
astounding that, but for the presence of ocular 
proof, they would be incredible, and by their mar- 
vellousness as well as by their beauty they serve, 
in some minds at least, to raise the unanswerable 
question. How come there to exist among the parts 
of this seemingly structureless vacancy which we 
call Space, these strange relations? Theist and 
Agnostic must agree in recognising the properties 
of Space as inherent, eternal, uncreated — as ante- 
ceding all creation, if creation has taken place, and 
all evolution, if evolution has taken place. Hence, 

could we penetrate the mysteries of existence, there 
would remain still more transcendent mysteries. 
. . . It is impossible to imagine how there came 
to exist the marvellous space-relations referred to 
above. We are obliged to recognise these as 
having belonged to space from all eternity. . . . 
The thought of a Space, compared with which our 
immeasurable sidereal system dwindles to a point, 
is a thought too overwhelming to be dwelt upon. 
Of late years the consciousness that without origin 
or cause infinite Space has ever existed, and must 
ever exist, produces in me a feeling from which I 

So speaks the old philosopher, who thus takes 
his literary farewell of the world. He is the last 
prophet of laissez-faire left amongst us, and in 
" Facts and Comments " we have a long wailing 
threnody over the perverseness of a world which, 
despite all his warnings, persists in endeavouring 
to regulate by law that which he would leave ab- 
solutely to individual liberty. How is it that the 
generation to which he has piped would not dance 
to his piping? 

The recently-founded " Nuova Parola," whose 
aim seems to be to seek for and to give utterance 
to new ideals in life and literature, publishes some 
excellent literary articles in its May number, one 
on Maeterlinck, and another on contemporary 
Spanish literature. 

Professor Toniolo, in the " Rivista Inter- 
nazionale," expounds the social meaning of the 
most recent Pontifical utterance of Leo XIII., and 
Professor Cantono sums up with admirable clear- 
ness the need for special legislation to regulate the 
work of women and children, such regulations 
until a recent Act of Parliament being practically 
non-existent in Italy. 

" Macmillan's Magazine " for June publishes two 
articles of a very melancholy nature. One is en- 
titled " Our Unhappy Language," which raises a 
lamentation over the extent to which the Ameri- 
cans are destroying the English language, both in 
spelling and in grammar; and the other is upon 
the True Decadence that is shown by the general 
and mournful deficiency in the artistic spirit, when 
readers are callously contented with the slovenly 
and the garish. 

Three articles are the complement of the con- 
tents of " Vragen des Tljds," with its eighty pages. 
Electoral Law Statistics offer a grand field for a 

display of figures, and the reader gets as many as 
he wants. Of more universal interest is the article 
on lead poisoning, wherein Mr. de Vooys deals ex- 
haustively with this important matter. " State 
Dispensaries " is another excellent article on an 
equally important topic; Dr. Bruinsma, the author, 
advocated their establishment sixteen years ago. 

The June magazines are simply humming 
with the Coronation. In the " Sunday At Home " 
" Ian Maclaren " improves the occasion with a 
homily to King and people on the moral and reli- 
gious significance of the event. Those who wish 
to know all about the Queen's Coronation, who will 
be in attendance on Her Majesty, and other par- 
ticulars, will find it well described and illustrated 
in an article by " Ignota " in the " Lady's Maga- 
zine " for May. Two very fully illustrated Coro- 
nation articles will be found in the double Coro- 
nation number of the " Woman At Home," one 
on the Pageant itself, the other on the Premier 
Peeress at the Coronation. The " Leisure Hour " 
for June contains an article on " The Coronation 
and Some of its Lessons," by the Bishop of Ripon. 
while Mary E. Palgrave describes " Coronations of 
Yesterday and the Day Before." In the " Quiver " 
" Ignota " discusses " The Religious Aspect of the 



July 20, ipo2. 


James Chalmers of New Guinea.* 

James Chalmers was one of the great mission- 
aries of the nineteenth century. His name stands 
beside those of Livingstone, Moffat, and Gilmour 
of Mongolia. He was the explorer of unknown 
lands. He delighted in danger, and no fear of 
death ever prevented him from obeying wha*. he 
felt to be the call of duty. He was fearless, rest- 
less, energetic, unconventional, and absolutely 
devoted to his work. The life of such a man 
makes Inspiring biography, and Mr. Lovett's life 
of Tamate (to give him his New Guinea name) is 
filled with the spirit of the missionary pioneer. 
He has allowed Chalmers to tell his own story in 
his own picturesque fashion. The thrilling narra- 
tive of his life and labours in the Pacific islands 
has been woven out of fragments of autobiography 
written late in life, letters to friends, and reports 
to directors. 

Work in Raratonga. 
Chalmers' name will always be associated with 
the island of New Guinea. He spent, however, 
the first ten years of his career as a missionary in 
Earatonga, an island which, when he set foot on 
it in 1869, had already been semi-civilised. Though 
his eager spirit chafed at this comparatively peace- 
ful sphere of labour, he threw himself heart and 
soul into the work of combating the evils of drink, 
the great curse of the island. His methods, lik" 
the man himself, were unconventional, and gave 
offence to the orthodox. He turned policeman, 
and broke up the native assemblies for drinking 
strong spirits; he encouraged them to drill, for he 
found that it was possible in this manner to obtain 
a strong hold upon them, and induce them to at- 
tend church and school; and he started a news- 
paper of four pages, filled with short articles and 
news and small pieces of Scripture. His graver 
brethren shook their heads over such novel 
methods of administering religious ordinances. 
But the result was satisfactory. The natives be- 
came devoted to Tamate; his influence was Im- 
mense: drinking greatly diminished, and the large 
assemblies entirely ceased. 

A Pioneer Among the Cannibals. 
The instinct of the pioneer was strong in Chal- 
mers. He longed earnestly to be allowed to spread 

*" James Chalmers: His Autobiography and Letters." 
By Richard Lovett. Crown 8vo, 511 pp. R.T.S. 
7s. 6d. net. Illustrated. 

the Gospel among the fierce and barbarous heathen. 
He turned wistful eyes in the direction of New 
Guinea, at that time an unknown land full of ter- 
rors, savagery and human degradation. These 
things, that would have made the Island repulsive 
to an ordinary man, only heightened its attractions 
to him. In 1878, Mr. and Mrs. Chalmers settled 
at Suan, on the coast of New Guinea. They re- 
ceived pressing invitations to cannibal feasts. One 
of the chiefs as a kindly attention made them a 
present of a portion of a man's breast ready cooked. 
Even converted natives smacked their lips at the 
recollection of the savoury morsels of human fiesh 
on which they had feasted in their unregenerate 

In Perils Oft. 
Human life had no value, and from the first 
Chalmers and his little band of native teachers 
were continually in danger of being massacred. 
His letters are filled with accounts of the most 
exciting adventures with armed and angry natives 
bent on murdering him. Only his magnificent 
courage and prompt resource saved him and his 
wife on many an occasion from imminent death. 
An incident that happened on their first landing is 
typical of dozens of subsequent hairbreadth es- 
capes: — 

I had not been long asleep when Mrs. Chalmers called 
out: " Quick! they have taken the house." I sprang 
from my bed, and rushed to one of the doors, which 
was simply made of a piece of cloth. I threw the piece 
of cloth aside, and there was a large armed party 
standing in front of us, and others at the end of the 
house. I could see in the dimness of the morning that 
they were led by the old chief of the mainland. Stand- 
ing before him I said, "What do you want?" "Give 
us compensation," said he, " or we will kill you and 
bum the house now." " Kill you may," I said, " but 
no more compensation do I give. Remember, if we 
die we shall die fightinpr, and there is an end of it." 
The old man got frightened. Then, for the first time, 
we took down the musket, and showed it to the old 
man. Some powder was put in, and some small shot. 
The people had seen us shoot birds before. I said 
to the old man, "Go! tell them that we are going 
to fight, and there must be an end to this. The first 
man that crosses where that fence stood " (for it had 
been thrown down) " is a dead man! Go!" They re- 
tired, leaving us alone with Him Who ever cares for 
His children. 

His Fearless Courage. 
For twenty-three years, with only two brief 
visits home, Chalmers worked in that savage land 
with indomitable courage and boundless hope. Both 
his wives, who heroically assisted him in hia 
labours, were killed by the cruel climate, native 
teachers were murdered and perished of fever, he 
himself was in constant danger both by land and 

Biviiw OF Rimws, 
Jolt 20, 1902. 



sea as he wandered up and down the coast found- 
ing and visiting mission stations. He seems to 
have been absolutely insensible to fear, and to have 
rejoiced like a Viking of old in the presence of 
danger. On one occasion he determined to make 
peace between two tribes who had been mutually 
preying on each other. The danger was so great 
that he could get no one to accompany him: — 

In the evening I was sitting at the front door with 
my wife, when a number of natives came before us, 
some of them carrying skulls. The skulls were placed 
in a row, and then our old friend Kariken said, "Friend, 
are you going over there to-morrow?" and I replied. 
" Yes, I intend going." " Do you see these skulls? 
They belonged to people we killed over there, and 
on these rocks we cut the bodies up, cooked and ate 
them. They have not been paid for, and your head 
would be considered good payment, as you are our great 
friend." Looking at me he went on, " Will you go 
now?" " Yes, I go to-morrow morning, and God 
will take care of us. 

Reaping His Reward. 

His labour was not in vain. Even four years 
after commencing his first mission station he was 
able to report a great change. " There are no 
cannibal ovens," he wrote, " no feasts, no human 
flesh, no desire for skulls. Tribes that could not 
formerly meet except to fight, now meet as friends, 
and sit side by side in the same house, worshipping 
the true God. Men and women who, on the arri- 
val of the mission, sought the missionaries' lives 
are only anxious now to do what they can to assist 
them — even to the washing of their feet." Chal- 
mers died as he had lived — in the mission field. 
In 1901 he was massacred, with his little band of 
teachers, at Dopima. His body was cut up, mixed 
with sago, cooked and eaten by his murderers. In 
many respects, both in temperament and disposi- 
tion, and also in the manner of his death, Chal- 
mers resembled General Gordon, and it is interest- 
ing to find that Robert Louis Stevenson, who met 
Chalmers in the Pacific, felt for him a kind of hero- 
worship and a greater admiration than he had for 
any man of modern times except Chinese Gordon. 

The Closed Door.* 

This is a true and faithful account of an experi- 
ment, in propria persona, of the treatment ac- 
corded to pauper emigrants in New York harbour 
fey the officials of the American democracy. Mr. 
Sherard undertook on behalf of the " Daily Ex- 
press" to subject himself to the miseries of the 
steerage in a French emigrant steamer sailing for 
New York. He not only went steerage, but he 
professed to be penniless when he arrived at New 
York, in order to see what treatment was meted 
out to undesirable emigrants who were refused 

*•' The Closed Door." By Robert Sherard. London: 
Digby, Lonw & Co. Price 3s. 6d. 

admittance into the great Republic. As the result, 
Mr. Sherard nearly lost his life, and was prostrated 
for several months with neurasthenia, which 
threatened a general paralysis, from which he has 
now happily recovered, although he is still suffer- 
ing somewhat from the consequences of his ex- 

In this book Mr. Sherard has recorded his ex- 
perience. It is painful reading for those who love 
their fellow-men. Mr. Sherard wields a graphic 
pen, and his picture of the way in which the men, 
and, still worse, the women, are treated by the 
stewards on board a French emigrant ship is re- 
volting in the extreme. Its main purpose, how- 
ever, was to discover the way in which undesirable 
emigrants were treated when they arrived at New 
York. It is difficult to believe that the state of 
things which he described could be allowed to exist 
at the portals of a great and wealthy republic. 
We know, however, too well what men dressed in 
a little brief authority are capable of doing to their 
fellow-men; but I feel sure that Mr. Sherard's 
exposure of the horrors of Ellis Island will be fol- 
lowed by a speedy reform. 

No doubt these undesirables were not wanted in 
America, and Mr. Sherard makes no complaint 
about their exclusion from the great Republic; but 
with hardly any exception they were innocent of 
any intent to disobey the emigration laws. They 
had spent the last penny of their savings in pur- 
chasing a passage, only to find the door of hope 
slammed in their faces, and they were to be sent 
back to their native country in abject despair. Mr. 
Sherard rightly suggests that swindling emigration 
agents who sell tickets to undesirable or penniless 
emigrants should be compelled to refund the pas- 
sage money. That is a matter which might very 
well be made the subject of international action, 
for the evil is confined to no one country. What is 
of much more urgency is the humanisation of the 
arrangements made at New York for the reception 
and accommodation of the emigrants who are not 
deemed worthy of an entrance into the United 

Mr. Sherard, at the risk of his health, and at the 
sacrifice of his comfort, has performed a service to 
humanity which should be gratefully recognised. 
It will be a foul and burning shame if, now that 
the facts have been brought to light, prompt reform 
does not follow. 

The Empire of Business.* 

By Its Empeboe. 

The collected essays of Andrew Carnegie have 
been published by Harper Brothers in a handsome 

*" The Empire of Business." By Andrew Carnegie. 
London and >J'ew York, 1902: Harper Brothers. 345 
pp. Price 10s. 6d. 



July 20, igo2. 

volume illustrated with a portrait of the author. 
The essays were contributed by Mr. Carnegie from 
time to time to the American and English periodi- 
cals, to which have been added some addresses. 
Most of these were noticed in the " Review of 
Reviews" when they appeared. There are some 
chapters, however, which have never before been 
published in England. 

The book opens, for instance, with a talk to 
young men on " The Road to Business Success." 
This was an address which Mr. Carnegie made to 
the students of the Curry Commercial College, 
Pittsburg, as far back as 1885. Mr. Carnegie is 
the very genius of incarnate common sense, and 
there is hardly a page in this book which does not 
bear the hall-mark of his cheery optimism. He is 
a famous gossiper, is Mr. Carnegie, whose writings 
are full of the charm of personal experience. He 
is of the same opinion as Mr. Rhodes as to the 
curse of inherited wealth. In his first chapter 
occurs the famous sentence: "I would almost as 
soon leave a young man a curse as burden him 
with the almightj'' dollar." " The vast majority of 
the sons of rich men are unable to resist the temp- 
tations to vv'hich wealth subjects them, and sink to 
unworthy lives." It is the poor young men whom 
he congratulates, who are born to that ancient and 
honourable degree which renders it necessary that 
they should devote themselves to hard work. 

The chapters dealing with the Conduct of Life are 
those on " Thrift as a Duty," and " How to Win 
Fortune," in which he maintains that it is the poor 
boys who are the successful men of to-day, and 
that college education is not necessary to business 

success. The chapter on business was a lecture 
delivered to Cornell University in 1896. The other 
chapters deal more particularly with the leading 
subjects which agitate the commercial and business 
world to-day. There is an admirable paper on 
"The A.B.C. of Money;" another upon what he 
calls "The Bugaboo of Trusts;" while the last 
chapters deal with such questions as the tariff, the 
Manchester School, Anglo-American Trade Rela- 
tions, Iron and Steel at Home and Abroad, and the 
Cost of Living in Britain. 

There is no better book to present to a young 
man entering life, and it is not surprising that it 
should have attained an immediate and widespread 
popularity on both sides of the Atlantic. Out o° 
this book there might be constructed a four-page 
leaflet ol Common-sense Maxims by the Benjamin 
Franklin of to-day. Mr. Carnegie is of a more 
merry mood than was Franklin, and is a great 
believer in the old saying that a merry heart doeth 
good like a medicine. He says: — 

It took me some time to learn, but I did learn, that 
the supremely great managers never do any work them- 
selves worth speaking about. Their point is to make 
others work, while they think. I applied this lesson 
in after-life, so that business with me has never been 
a care. My young partners did the work, and I did 
the laughing; and I commend to all the thought 
that there is very little success where there is little 

It is very curious that Mr. Carnegie, this in- 
veterate optimist and laughing philosopher, should 
admire no one so much as Herbert Spencer as 
guide, philosopher, and friend. But while the 
prophet is full of pessimism, his disciple, despite 
all his millions, is as merry-hearted as a schoolboy 
just tui'ned loose in the playground. 

Passing over the story with which " De Gids " 
opens the issue under review, we come to an essay 
on " India and Democracy," by C. Th. van De- 
venter, whose name is a guarantee of something 
worth reading; the idea that Holland should give 
up its colonies, as advocated by some democratic 
politicians, gives him a theme. The sources from 
which Wagner drew the stories of his musical 
works is a continuation of a subject which, though 
not entirely novel, has something entirely new in 
it " The Amazons " afford Dr. Vurtheim a subject 
for a dip into bygone days, and he succeeds in his 
task of interesting and imparting knowledge at the 
same time. After reading an issue of this monthly 
one lays it aside with the feeling that the con- 
tributors have gone so thoroughly into their sub- 
jects that anything which has not been said by 
them on those subjects is not worth saying. There 
is nothing superficial about the essays. 

The " Atlaniic Monthly " for May is rather dull. 
Mr. W. M. Salter's " Second Thoughts on the 
Treatment of Anarchy" amounts to this — that if 
we are to prevent Anarchists preferring " no rale 
at all " to our " rule and government " we must 
show them that our way is the better. " The Hid- 
den Weakness in our Democracy," discussed by Mr. 
V. Scudder, is the tendency of Americans to split 
into groups, mutually indifferent or exclusive. The 
primary division is Employers and Employed, but 
there are many others, smaller, but equally strongly 
marked. Discussing " Modern Chivalry," Mr. J. 
Corbin manages to do nothing but contrast the 
English and the Americans. We play too much, 
he says. We must have our holidays, however busy 
the season. An English firm will let orders pass 
by rather than work through the Whitsuntide holi- 
days. Not so an American firm. 

Rbvibw of Revihws, 
QVhY 20, 1902. 



MR. G. F. WATTS, R.A. 
Bt W T Stead. 

" I often think that in the future, and in stronger hands than mine, art may yet speak as great poetry 
itself, with the solemn and majestic ring in which the Hebrew prophet spoke to the Jews of old, demanding 
noble aspirations, condemning in the most trenchant m anner prevalent vices, and warning in deep tones against 
lapses from morals and duties. There is something more to be done in this way, I believe, than has yet been 
done." — Extract from a Letter from Mr. O. F. Watts to Miss Julia CartwrigJit. 

For many years Mr. Watts has been employed 
in modelling a colossal equestrian figure typical 
of Energy and Foresight. It represents an ex- 
plorer mounted upon a noble steed which he has 
tamed, and who, having arrived at the summit 
of a mountain, shades his eyes from the sun with 
his hand, as he looks out upon the vast unknown 
lands awaiting his discovery and conquest. This 
magnificent symbolic statue has been given by 
Mr. Watts to Rhodesia. It is now being cast in 
bronze, and will soon be on its way to the Matop- 
poB, where it will be 
erected as the tribute 
of England's greatest 
living painter t o 
Africa's greatest son. 
The figure is pvirely 
symbolical, and is in 
no sense a portrait of 
Mr. Rhodes, but it will 
stand on that lofty 
table-land looking out 
northward to the in- 
terior o f Central 
Africa not yet spanned 
by the Cape-to-Cairo 
railroad. Mr. Rhodes 
stood to Mr. Watts 
for bis portrait, and 
although they met only 
in the last year of Mr. 
Rhodes' life, the inter- 
view deepened the ad- 
miration and affection 
with which Mr. Watts 
had ever regarded Mr. 
Rhodes. The two 
men differed enor- 
mously, but they were 
alike in being ideal- 
ists of the first water. 

Both spent their lives Photograph by] 

in making their ideals LIMNERSLEASE: IN 

visible to mankind. They laboured in very different 
materials — Mr. Watts in the pigments with which 
he made his canvases visions of dream-like beauty; 
Mr. Rhodes in the roaring loom of time, founding 
Commonwealths and rearing and wrecking Em- 
pires. Mr. Rhodes has gone; Mr. Watts remains, 
the greatest of all the Victorians who still survive 
amongst us. 

Mr. Watts and Mr. Herbert Spencer, both octo- 
genarians, linger amongst us, reminding a puny 
generation that there were giants in those days. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer is 
a philosopher whose 
writings have pro- 
f o u n d 1 y influenced 
thoughtful men 
throughout the world. 
Mr. Watts is an artist 
whose pictures have 
appealed to a much 
wider public. It is 
perhaps no exaggera- 
tion to say that he is, 
all things being con- 
sidered, the greatest of 
all living Englishmen. 
Compared with his re- 
nown the fame of the 
King who is to be 
crowned this month 
cannot for a moment 
compare. Kings are 
the best advertised of 
mortals, for limitless 
advertisement is one 
of the most precious 
privileges of the mon- 
archy. But Mr. Watts, 
who is a» monarch in 
the realm of art. sways 
a far more potent 
[E. H. Mills. sceptre in his brush 

THE ENTRANCE HALL. ^^^^n the bejewelled 



July 20. IQO?. 

staff which will be placed in the hand oi Edward 
VII. at the Abbey. 

Nor is it only that Mr. Watts is the supremer 
genius. He has also displayed throughout me 
whole of his career a sense of public duty which, 
unfortunately, is i"are amongst mortals. No artist 
of our time has regarded himself so much as the 
servant of the people. No one has so lavishly 
given of his best without fee or reward to those 
whom he wished to serve. He has, indeed, been 
true to his own conception of the prophetic mission 
of the artist. As Mr. Rhodes left his millions to 
the promotion of his ideals, so Mr. "Watts has be- 
queathed the bulk of his allegorical pictures to the 
nation, together with the portraits of distinguished 
Englishmen whom he has painted in the last half 
century. When he was a comparatively young 
man he painted the north side of the great hall 
in Lincoln's Inn, executing this fresco, which is 
forty feet high by forty-five feet long, without any 
remuneration. But how far he was in advance 
of his generation may be infei'red from the fact 
that he offered the directors of the London and 
North-Western Railway to decorate the station 
at Euston with frescoes illustrating the history of 
the world; and although he proposed to do this at 
his own expense, his offer was rejected! '' In early 
days," said Miss Cartwright, in a charming essay 
which she wrote for a special issue of the " Art 
Journal " some years ago, " the young artist 
dreamt of building a great temple or house of light, 
with wide corridors and stately halls, containing 
a grand series of paintings on the mysteries of life 
and death. That dream, alas! was never destined 
to be realised, so we shall never have a Sistine 
Chapel adorned by the hand of our own Michael 

But although Mr. Watts was not able to carry 
out that splendid idea, he has painted many pic- 
tures which, in his own words, suggest great 
thoughts that will appeal to the imagination and 
the heart, and kindle all that is best and noblest in 
humanity. In his later years he has painted pic- 
tures illustrative of heroism in humble life. But 
space would fail me to recount all his benefactions 
to the nation. A book containing reproductions 
of all his paintings, with a narrative telling the 
story of all the themes which have kindled his 
imagination and stimulated his genius, would 
embody most of the great traditions of our race. 
English history. Scripture history, and the myths 
of ancient Hellas have all appealed to him, and he 
has touched nothing that he did not adoi'n. But 
I have no intention of writing upon Mr. Watts 
or his art. It was my privilege last month to 
spend a day at Limnerslease, and to hear from the 
lips of the " old man eloquent " his ideas and 
aspirations, which I now place on permanent re- 

cord for the instruction and edification of my 

Mr. Watts is eighty-six years old. Although he- 
is so advanced in years, he carries himself erect, 
and his eyesight is undimmed. He uses no glasses, 
walks without a stick, and until the last three or 
four years he was known as one of the best riders 
in Surrey. Eleven years ago he bought a small 
piece of ground on the southern slope of the Hog's 
Back, between three and four miles from Guild- 
ford. There he erected Limnerslease, an ideal 
artist's house, laid out the grounds around it, and 
created for himself a terrestrial paradise, with a 
spacious studio, admirably lighted, in which he is 
to be found at work every morning at sunrise. 
As he rises with the sun, he goes to bed with it— 
at least in summer-time, when he is often up and 
at work with his pictures or his statues as early 
ao half-past three o'clock in the morning. 

The Octogenarian's Secret. 

And what is the secret of this extraordinary 
longevity, or rather unabated vitality? Many men 
vegetate when they are as old as Mr. Watts, but 
how few there are whose natural force is unabated 
a2id who preserve in old age the vigour, the skill, 
and the enthusiasm of youth! 

" What is the secret, Mr. Watts?" I said. 

" I have always been very sickly," was the 
painter's somewhat paradoxical reply. " From 
mj^ earliest years I have never been robust, and, 
indeed, for this reason I was compelled to refrain 
from most of the violent exercises of yotith. I 
neither drank nor smoked, nor did anything, in 
fact. [ am a very negative sort of a person. I 
have just lived — with the exception, of course, of 
my v.'ork. But although I have been successful, 
far beyond anything I ever hoped, when I began 
life, I cannot say that the joy of life has ever been 
mine. ' enjoy my work; I am intensely ihterested 
in it, and am continual ij^ endeavouring to improve, 
for," said Mr. Watts, with a delightful smile, " if 
I don't improve now, when shall I ever have a 
chance of doing so? What I mean is thac the 
buoyant exuberance of animal spirits, which leads 
many people to rejoice in life for the mere sake of 
living, I have never known. 

His Conception of Death. 

" Nor have I ever shrunk from death. In my 
works I have endeavoured to destroy the fear of 
Death, to cause him to be regarded, not as a dread 
enemy, but as a kindly friend, and such has ever 
been my feeling. I should, of cotirse, regret to 
leave work undone and to part from those friends 
whom I love; but a sense of the weariness of the 
world, and the suffering and sadness which seem 
to be inherent in mortal things, have weakened 

Kkvibw cf Reviews, 
July 20, 1902. 



if not destroyed that joy of life which is common 
to most young things. The condition of things in 
this world, so far as I can see it, full of suffering 
and sorrow, saddens me. I feel it might have 
been so much better arranged in many things; 
and the burden of it weighs upon me. That is one 
reason why I feel that every theological student, 
before he applies himself to theology, should be 
thoroughly grounded in physiology. Too often 
theologians seem to regard the body with con- 
tempt, not to say dislike. 

their own health and looked after their neigh- 
bours'. In the long run the body avenges itself 
upon the soul which neglects or abuses its habi- 
tation. Being naturally sickly, I had orders to 
take care of my body. I have never smoked. 
Greater things were done in the world, im- 
measurably greater, before tobacco was discovered, 
than have ever been done since. The cigarette 
is the handmaid of idleness. I do not say that 
possibly it may not be a sedative to overwrought 
nerves; but overwrought nerves in themselves are 

Photograph by] 


[E. H. Mills. 

The Religion of the Body* 

" To live a healthy life," continued Mi-. Watts, 
" to have the body in which your soul dwells in 
good working order — that is surely the first duty 
of the religious man. How many generations have 
lived and died in the belief that piety consists in 
the maceration of the body, and in spending many 
hours upon their knees crying to God to do this, 
that, and the other for them. Instead, how much 
better it would have been if they had looked after 

things that ought not to be. Of wine I have taken 
very little. In my earlier years I used to take a 
little, but for a long time I have never touched 
any form of alcohol. Ac meals I never drink any- 
thing, not even water. Tea — yes, in moderation. 
And so with regard to food I have been compelled 
to be very abstemious — to eat moderately and of 
simple food, to go to bed early (nine o'clock, for 
the most part), to rise with the sun, to avoid 
violent exercise, and to enjoy plenty of fresh air." 



Julv 20, IQ02. 

His Faith in Progress. 

Mr. Watts' regimen has left him, for a person 
" naturally sickly," in possession of an extraordi- 
nary amount of vitality. For nearly two hours 
our last remaining Grand Old Man stood on his 
feet discoursing with eloquence and fervour upon 
many subjects that are very dear to his heart. 

" I am a firm believer in progress," said he; 
" but in some respects we have not progressed, but 
retrogressed. Certain faculties which animals and 
savages possess are no longer at our command. 
Our senses are not so keen as they were, and some 
we have lost altogether. Take, for instance, the 
extraordinary homing faculty which belongs to 
most animals and a great many savages. Very few 
civilised men possess the faculty of finding their 
way home when they are lost in the midst of a 
great city. I remember a friend of mine who pos- 
sessed that faculty in an extraordinary degree. 
We would occasionally walk together to the east 
of London, and sometimes entirely lose our bear- 
ings. I could never have found my way home, 
but my friend was never at a loss. No matter 
where he might be, he always struck out for home, 
and found his way back without any doubt. 

" Take another instance — eyesight. I remember 
Sir William Bowman, the oculist, telling me of 
some educated Zulus whose eyesight was so keen 
that they could read the ' Times ' newspaper at 
the distance of one wall to the other of his con- 
sulting room! Whether we could regain those lost 
facultiies or not I do not know. We are crowded 
together in cities, a healthy country life is im- 
possible to an increasing proportion of our people, 
and our physique is decaying. 

Archery and Physique. 

" When I was in Yorkshire some years ago the 
friends with whom I was staying showed me one 
of their cherished relics, a long-bow, which, ac- 
cording to tradition, had been the weapon of Little 
John of the Robin Hood ballads. A little bit was 
broken off one end, but it was otherwise intact. 
That bow was as thick as my wrist. Just imagine 
a modern man set to draw such a bow. He could 
not move it; it would be absolutely impossible. 
How was it possible in those days? It was be- 
cause the whole population was trained to the use 
of the bow. It was practised with pleasure by 
everybody. Ask one of our modern toxophilites 
to handle such a bow, and he would laugh at you. 
I don't suppose we could restore the practice of 
archery in our country, but if we could it would do 
more than anything else to restore the physique 
of our people. As Bishop Latimer said in one of 
his sermons, he was taught by his yeoman father 
to throw the whole weight of his body into his 

bow hand. Evidently the aim was suddenly taken 
by the left hand; and in this way they of olden 
time launched the arrows which did such havoc at 
Crecy and Agincourt. You can easily conceive 
how it developed the chest and strengthened the 
muscles of the arm and perfected the physique. 
The modern rifle is a miserable substitute. 

The Case for Conscription. 

" I am inclined to believe," said Mr. Watts, 
" that nothing would be better for the physique 
and also for the morale of the population than the 
adoption of some system of compulsory military 
service. If every young man were to be subjected 
to two years of salutary discipline in the camp, and 
more especially in the na\T, he would learn to 
obey, and be passed through a rigorous physical 
training. In Germany, at least, I understand that 
there is only one opinion as to the physical and 
moral benefits of military training." 

I said my impression was that in France there 
were somewhat different opinions; that young men 
learnt a good many things in the barracks that 
were anything but moral. 

" I don't know," said he. " Probably they would 
have picked them up all the same if they had 
been scrambling round with nothing to do in their 
own villages. 

In Praise of Sailors. 

" But I much prefer the training of a sailor to 
that of a soldier. It was my fortune to spend some 
time once upon a man-of-war. I was immensely 
impressed with the sailor's life. The sailor is 
trained first of all to observation, and observation 
is after all the root of education. Sailors are in- 
telligent, resourceful men, full of vitality, genial, 
good-tempered men. I suppose we must always 
have soldiers and sailors, if only to keep our own 
shores safe from attack. But if I had my way 
I would make it compulsory for every soldier to 
spend a certain portion of his time on board ship, 
and at the same time I should let the sailor have 
every opportunity of learning to ride and shoot. 

British Horsemanship. 

" We plume ourselves in England on being the 
best horsemen in the world, and I am not by any 
means sure that we are not the worst. To be a 
good horseman is much more than merely to be 
able to keep your seat in the saddle. Take, for 
instance, the question of the bit. You will con- 
stantly be told that you should always ride your 
horse with a snaflEle and no curb, because then you 
don't hurt the horse if you pull him with the bridle. 
On the contrary; a sharp bit and a light hand — 
indeed, anything but -a light hand with a sharp bit 
— will not do, as the rider would soon find. A 

Rkvikw ( K Rkvikw.s, 
July 20, 1902. 



good rider depends upon his grip, knees, and move- 
ments of his body for the security of his seat and 
indications of his will, never depending on reins 
or stirrup at all for firmness in the saddle. No 
groom is ever taught this, and every horse's mouth 
is spoilt. I regard riding as one of the fine arts. 
I love a horse, but would abolish the turf— fruitful 
source of gambling, the one vice for which Nature 
offers no excuse !" 

No; nor your public schools. Your Eton and your 
Harrow are just as much to blame, perhaps even 
more so. What is the first object whicu a real 
education should aim at? I'o develop observation 
in the person educated, to teach him to use his 
eyes and his ears, to be keenly alive to all that 
surrounds him, to teach him to see, to observe — 
in short, everything is in that. And then, after 
you have taught him to observe, the next great 

Photograph by] 


[E. H. Mills, 

A Pica for Real Education. 

Mr. Watts warmed to his subject as he spoke. 

" The education of the people," he continued — 
" that is the great question. Why do you not con- 
centrate attention upon that? To educate your 
people, to draw out of them that which is latent 
in them, to teach them the faculties which they 
themselves possess, to tell them how to use their 
senses, and to make themselves at home with 
nature and with their surroundings — who teaches 
them that? Your elementary schools don't do it. 

duty which lies immediately after observation is 
reflection — to teach him to reflect, to ponder, to 
think over things, to flnd out the cause, the reason, 
the why and the wherefore; to put this and that 
together, to understand something of the world in 
which he lives, and so prepare him for all the 
circumstances of the life in which he may be 
found. But observation! Was there ever any 
method less calculated to develop the habit of ob- 
servation than the practice of cramming up boys 
with the Latin and Greek grammar? 



July 20,, ipo2. 

"Heaven forbid!" said Mr. Watts, "that I 
should say a word against the learning of Latin 
or Greek. I am all in favour of mastering the 
language of the classics, especially Greek; but the 
knowledge of the language is but as an instrument 
with which you can unlock the treasures of 
thought of these people. What do you do? You 
send your boys to school, and simply impress, as 
it were with a stamp, the rules of grammar, to 
them utterly meaningless, and till applied utterly 
without interest. The result is that in nine cases 
out of ten a boy never gets more than a smatter- 
ing of the language and forgets it as rapidly a.= 
he possibly can after leaving school. 

The Domestic Arts. 

" It is typical of the how-not-to-do-it way that is 
characteristic of all our education. It neither 
teaches a man to live, nor how to. make the best 
of himself, nor how to make the most of his sur- 
roundings. Look in any direction you please. 
You turn out hundreds of thousands of young men 
and young women from your schools to mate and 
to make homes for themselves without teaching 
the girl how to bake or how to cook, and the boy 
the best way to lay a fire or to boil a kettle. Every- 
thing hinges upon this — they are not taught to 
observe; they are not taught to reflect; and edu- 
cation, instead of being the development of those 
faculties of the mind which enable them to use 
their senses and to reflect on what they see, has 
given place to a mere mechanical stamping upon 
the memory of forms of words, many of which 
have no relation to anything that they will have to 
see and do in their after-life. 

The Education of a Sailor. 

" Contrast this with the education of a sailor. 
Oh I wish," said Mr. Watts, " that you would 
endeavour to rouse public opinion on this subject, 
to point out the abominable waste that goes on of 
human faculties, the amount of misery that comes 
into the world from the fact that our young people 
are turned loose without any training that is calcu- 
lated to make them happy and comfortable. The 
smaller their means, the more need there is for 
them to be able to make the most of them. But 
we have had an opportunity recently of seeing 
what can be done by giving something of the edu- 
cation of the sailor to our village lads. A boy 
in this neighbourhood who was left without proper 
guardianship was sent to school for a little time, 
and then afterwards sent to a training-ship. He 
came back recently on a visit to the old village, 
and his people were surprised by the change that 
had been wrought in him. It was a transforma- 
tion; the lad was respectful, alert, quick in move- 
ment, nice in his manners, and his faculties had 

been thoroughly trained. Now what an object- 
lesson is that! Here is a great task that might 
surely be commended to the attention of those 
excellent ladies who are to be found all over the 
land who are anxious to do good, but who do not 
know exactly how to set about it. 

The Waste of Child-Life. 

" Why should they not endeavour to check the 
waste of child-life that is going on, and to re- 
cognise in practical fashion the guardianship 
which the nation owes to these its wards? Have 
you ever thought how many children there are 
growing up in our midst who have either no 
parents, or worse than none — children of tramps, 
the offspring of criminals, or orphans, disinherited 
even of parentage, who are growing up, if not 
exactly nobody's children, nevertheless without 
adequate parentage? Why should we not recognise 
the redemption of these children as one of those 
sacred tasks which in every age have appealed ti 
the chivalrous sentiment of people? I would not 
call them Cnildren of the btate. No; they are 
the Children of the Nation, and the nation should 
set itself to the task of their redemption. Here 
and there philanthropists, no doubt, have done 
excellent work; but still, after all that has been 
done, how many thousands of children at this 
moment are growing up unnurtured, untended, un- 
educated in the worst sense of the word, to swell 
the tide of human misery! It is a marvel to me. 
It onlj^ shows how good we were originally, that 
human creatures who have such an origin should 
not grow up positive fiends. 

The Most Urgent Reform. 

" There is, in fact, some goodness in human 
nature that seems ineradicable by circumstances. 
Even among the Hooligans and roughs of the 
slums you will find immense capacities for self- 
sacrifice, which are occasionally revealed when 
fires or accidents make a sudden appeal to the 
heroism of humble life. Why should we allow 
such rough diamonds to escape without giving 
them adequate setting? It seems to me that we 
should stud the coasts of our country with training 
ships, in which we should give the best education 
in the world to these Children of the Nation, who 
are growing up to be the scourge and despair of 
civilisation. This is the most urgent reform — the 
utilisation of the waste of humanity. I remember 
my old friend Lord Aberdare telling me once of 
a stream in Wales which was polluted by the waste 
product of some factory that had been established 
higher up the hills. It was a beautiful stream be- 
fore the poisonous chemical refuse was fiung into 
the upper water; but after that it was poisoned. 
All remonstrances were in vain. The owners of 

Review of Reviews, 
JiLY 20, 1902. 



the factory relied upon legal right, and went on 
polluting the stream, until at last the dwellers 
down stream took counsel with some chemists. 
They intercepted the waste product of the factory, 
and found that it was possible, by chemical treat- 
ment, to convert it into a source of great revenue. 
So it is with us. This stream of neglected boy- 
hood flows into the channel of our national life 
at present— neglected, waste, and poisonous 
material. But training-ships would be as the 
crucible of the chemist, converting what had been 
a source of danger into a source of health, strength, 
and wealth to the community." 

I ventured at this point to state the familiar ob- 
jections to institutions for training children, and 
said I thought a very third-rate mother was better 
than the best head ot a bar- 
racks. Mr. Watts said he 
did not argue in favour of 
huge Institutions. His idea 
was training-ships. When 
painting his memorial to the 
heroes in humble life he had 
been more and more im- 
pressed by the way in which 
the primal instincts of manly 
heroism burst out and 
flowered under most rough 
and rugged surroundings. 

The Law of Combat the 
Law of Life* 

■' How is it," I asked, "that 
tuman society always seems 
to go rotten at the top?" 

" It is a natural law," said 
the painter; " for the strug- 
gle for existence cannot be 
suspended without loss. The 
law of combat is the law of 
life. When a man is com- 
fortable and has all that he 

wants, his fibres become relaxed. He is no longer 
pressed by the daily and hourly contest which is the 
condition of a sti'enuous life. Hence all races tend 
to decay when they achieve comfort. And that 
law of combat," said he, suddenly giving the con- 
versation a personal turn, " is what you ignore in 
your opposition to war. War is but the ultimate 
form — grosb, rude, horribly painful, no doubt, but 
the culminating point of the rock of combat which 
is the condition of progress." 

I ventured to protest against that theory. 

" Logically," said I, " your principle, which I 
accept in certain aspects, would, if applied as you 
apply it, lead you to advocate the restoration of the 
Heptarchy or of the condition of internecine feud 
■which prevailed in the Middle Ages. It seems to 

me that war between nations is simply a hideous 
waste of forces, which, if compelled to confine 
their combat within less bai'barous bounds, would 
produce greater results for the good of the race." 

The Parable of the Mascles. 

Mr. Watts shook his head. 

" You may be right, but the time for achieving 
that ideal is not yet come. You must learn to toler- 
ate the universal law which governs the progress of 
mankind. It does not follow that when you go to 
war with people you hate them. I think that our 
soldiers in South Africa have demonstrated that. 
They have done their best to defeat the Boers who 
invaded our territory. Having defeated them, 
they harbour no ill will, but regard them with 

riiotograph by J 


[E. H. Mills. 

humane feelings. No, no," said he, clenching his 
fist and stretching out his right arm. " combat 
does not involve malice. Difference of function 
does not imply even antagonism. Look at my 
arm. With the extensor I thrust out my arm;- 
with the fiexor on the other side I draw it back. 
The two muscles have absolutely opposite func- 
tions, but you need both of them in order to use 
your arm. So it is in life. There is an apparent 
opposition, a duality of function necessary to build 
up a true unity. Hence intolerance of opposition 
is one of the worst sins against progress." 

A Personal Application. 

" I agree," I said, " but surely you preach to the 
converted. I am a man of peace, you know; but 



July 20, ICf02. 

was there ever anyone who carried out so strin- 
gently the policy of opposition and of combat as 
I do myself?" 

" That you do," he said, " and carry it much too 
far." And then, with a delightful inconsistency 
and a charming grace, he read me a very pretty 
little lecture upon the duty of conducting con- 
troversy with kid gloves, so to speak, arguing in 
favour of never antagonising your opponent or 
hitting him between the eyes every time — a prac- 
tice which aggravated him and was apt to develop 
an opposition which would be fatal to the con- 
vincing of the opponent. 

" Well." said I, " I have been a fighter all my 
life, and the greatest of all obstacles with which 
I have had to contend has been the apathy and 
the sluggishness of the popular mind, which you 
can't even force to hit back. It's no use 
whispering sweetly in the ear of a deaf man, or 
even, speaking in moderate tones to a person who 
is sunk in slumber. You need to shout to wake 
such folk up." 

A Tribute to ""The Maiden Tribute/' 

" Ah," he said, " sometimes that is so, and I 
can never forget the great work you did many 
years ago when you went to gaol in a good cause. 
You were right there, you were right, indeed, and 
earned the honour and glory of suffering for your 
cause. Do you know," he said to me, " a friend 
cf mine was so shocked at what you had written 
at that time that he bought from the boys who 
were selling them in the streets all the ' Pall Mall 
Gazettes ' that he could lay his hands on, and told 
me he was going to burn them. ' It was too 
horrible,' he said, ' to have such things printed.' 
I said: ' No, the editor is right. There is no other 
means of remedying the wrong.' Do you know, " 
Mr. Watts added eagerly. " it was your writing 
of those articles that compelled me to take my 
brush and paint my picture of the Minotaur? Do 
you know my picture of the Minotaur?" 

" Yes," I said, " indeed I do." 

" Well, I painted it under the compulsion of 
what you wrote. You combated for the right and 
achieved great renown. But it is not always ne- 
cessary to carry your policy of opposition to such 
lengths. You don't mind my scolding you?" he 

" Scold me," I said. " It is the greatest compli- 
ment you can pay me. I am most grateful to you. 
It amuses me that you should begin by eulogising 
the law of combat that is the law of life, and then 
immediately proceed to admonish me as to the ex- 
cess of zeal with which I carr\' out this very ele- 
mentary law in my constant practice. Why, I 
remember preaching this very law that you speak 
of to a Cardinal whom I inet in Rome." 

The Roman Church. 

" Ah," said Mr. Watts, " Cardinals would not 
understand. Their principle is quite the opposite. 
They would stifle opposition and silence difference 
of opinion. They are intolerant in their nature, 
and hence they have lost their hold upon the in- 
tellect of mankind. Yet," he said, " the Roman. 
Church embodies a great idea, and in the timea 
past, in the days when mankind was divided into 
beasts of prey and beasts of burden, that Church 
rendered noble service to humanity." 

"Yes," I exclaimed; "and the great problem of 
our time is to revive that lost ideal and reconsti- 
tute a new centre for the direction of the moral 
forces of mankind." 

Mr. Watts shook his head. 

" Never again," said he. " You cannot do it; 
the mind of man will never consent to be eternally 
cramped by the restrictions of the Roman creed." 

Creeds as Pictures. 

" Creeds," said he, "are all very well in their 
way, but after all they are but pictures of the 
Infinite as seen by the human mind. Take an 
illustration. I have seen some picture of some 
natural object, and I wish to make you understand 
what it is. Far simpler than to describe it in 
words is to make a picture — draw a sketch, and 
let you look at it. It is the same with creeds. 
The Church makes creeds as I make a picture. 
For the ordinary man, who has had no vision 
himself, it suffices. If you can see the object your- 
self you recognise that my sketch is only a picture, 
and not the real thing. The tendency is always 
to substitute the sketched object for the reality. 
Look at this hand." said he. " What wonderful 
things we can do with the human hand." 

I looked at it closely, and wished that I could 
read the secret of the innumerable lines which 
crossed and recrossed, not only the palm but every 
phalange; the hand of the artist and thinker — a 
hand every inch of the surface of which was scored 
deep with eloquent lines. 

Mr. Watts was not thinking, however, of 
palmistry. He was bent upon giving me one of 
those homely illustrations with which his con- 
versation abounds. 

The Parable of the Fing;ers and the Thumbs 

" Here," said he, seizing the forefinger of his 
right hand in the finger and thumb of his left, " do 
you see that? That stands for faith, that for hope, 
and so on." he continued. " These four fingers 
represent the ministration of man. They stand 
for Religion. Now look at the thumb. The thumb' 
stands for Reason. Cut off a man's thumb, and 

Rkview ok Rkviews 
JuLV 20, 190-^. 



what can he do? Nothing, except perhaps hang 
on to a bar with his fingers. Take away the 
fingers, and what can he do with his thumb? And 
so it is in life. The human race loses the use of 
its hand when religion is divorced from reason 
or reason from religion. As you must have your 
fingers and your thumb in order to grasp anything, 
so man needs both reason and religion in order to 
conduct his life. But stay," said he; "I have had 
typed out for you two quotations which seem to me 
to express the highest thought uttered by man 

in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him 
who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow 
and his children, to do all which may acnieve and 
cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves 
and with all nations. 

" Oh, he was a great man, Abraham Lincoln, 
one of the greatest of men. I suppose," said Mr. 
Watts, " Napoleon, if he had been a good man, 
would have been the greatest man that ever lived; 
but he was not a good man, and so he fell short. 
But for intellect, and energy and genius, he was 
the greatest of all. Ah! if he had but been cap- 

Photograph by] 


[E. H. Mills. 

upon the subject of religion. There is nothing 
higher or simpler or more noble." 

Two Golden Sentences. 
With that he left the room, and presently re- 
turned with a sheet of paper on which were type- 
written two sentences. " The first," he said, " con- 
tains the closing M^ords of the speech of Abraham 
Lincoln ": — 

With malice toward none, with charity for all. 
with firmness in the right as God gives us to see 
the right, let us strive on to finish the worK we are 

able of uttering such words as those of Abraham 

Lincoln, then he would have towered aloft. But 

read my other text, which is shorter": — 

What doth the Lord require of thee, but to do 
justly, love mercy, and walk humbly before Him. 

" An utterance of an old Hebrew which should 
appeal to every Christian. The essence of it all is 

The Utmost for the Highest. 
" Yes, indeed," I said, " and the essence of all 
religion is the same. What is wanted is to create 



July 20,100?. 

some centre where the best thought of the best 
men, all the best that has been done and thought 
in the world, should be rendered accessible to 
everyone, and that from that centre should go 
forth the energising force, reviving civic religion 
and summoning and directing us all in the service 
cf mankind." 

" Ah. yes," said he, •' if you could make smli a 
Church then indeed we would all belong to it. You 
know my motto." he continued, pointing as he 
spoke to a sundial which bore eloquent testimony 
to the skill of the potter-artists who worked under 
the direction of Mrs. Watts. I read the inscrip- 

" ' The utmost for the highest.' That has ever 
been my watchword, no you not think it is a 
good one?" 

■■ Yes. indeed." I replied. " But it is easier for 
us to know when we have done our utmost than 
to be sure about the highest." 

The painter did not speak, but. walking a little 
way, he picked up a daisy from the lawn and gave 
it to me. 

" It is my flower," said he, " a humble thing, 
but it ever looks upward." 

Limnerslease is full of symbolism. Mrs. Watts, 
a Celt of the Celts, revels in surrounding herself 
with the mystic and graceful symbols of Celtic 
art. From the ceiling in the sitting-room looked 
down upon us many quaint symbolic figures of her 
designing. Their days are passed within walls on 
which are inscribed in strange poetic pictures the 
meaning and the mystery of life. 


Our talk ran on that great mystery of being— 
whence we came, whither we go. I said: " It 
seems as if our mortal life is but a pause or a 
period of an existence which began before we were 
clothetl with our mortal bodies, and continues 
after we pass hence." 

" I should like to believe it," said Mr. Watts. 
" It seems to me the most satisfying of hypo- 
theses. It would explain many things. Why, for 
instance, should I have been born with this deep 
passion for Greece and Grecian things? From my 
earliest boyhood the word Greece, the thought of 
Greece, thrilled me as nothing else could do; and 
to this day I have an intenser sense of sympathy 
and union with classic Greece than with any other 
country. But who can say? That is one of the 
things upon which nothing can be known. All 
through my life I have longed for the realisation 
of the old Greek ideals of art to give the people a 
sense of the beauty and sacredness of things, and 
to overthrow the fear of death. To me, as I have 
told you, death has never had any terrors, and in 
my pictures I have endeavoured to teach that les- 

son. Of the Future we know nothing, and from 
the Beyond none comes back." 

I may not enter here upon the discussion that 
followed upon the evidence of spirit return, and 
the hope, already deepening into an assured con- 
fidence, that the existence of our personality after 
death will some day be found capable of scientific 
verification like any other fact of nature. 

" All these thousands of years," said Mr. Watts, 
" and it has never been done yet." 

" So," I replied, " they might have spoken to 
Watt when he dreamed of the utilisation of steam; 
or to Franklin when he sought to harness the 
lightning to the service of man." 

" These are material things," said Mr. Watts. 
" But who knows? It may be. I have leamt 
enough to know that one should never say of any- 
thing, ' it is impossible.' I only say it has not yet 
come with in my experience. I do not think," he 
continued, " that anyone is really an atheist." 

Is Providence Good? 

"Alas!" I exclaimed, "I am afraid we are all 
atheists half our time, for no one can fear, or 
worry, or do wrong without being an atheist for 
the time being, forgetting God." 

" But," said Mr. Watts, " that is another mat- 
ter. That assumes the goodness of Providence. 
I do not say that it may not be good if we could 
see eveiTthing, but judging from the condition of 
the world which we see, and the misery and suf- 
fering which go Oil around us, I find it difficult 
to believe; and it is not rendered less difficult 
by the language which some good people use. 
There was one good man who the other day spoke 
about the Almighty employing all the resources 
of His magnificent mind in order to achieve an ob- 
ject which certainly would not have involved the 
straining of the powers of Omnipotence. What 
I feel is that Conscience is as the voice of God 
within us. What we have to do is to be obedient 
to its word. But I think the world might have 
been much better arranged." 

" Then you have not read Sir Henry Thomp- 
son's article in the ' Fortnightly,' " I remarked, 
" in which he has arrived at a firm conviction of 
tne goodness of Divine Providence because man- 
kind has been left so absolutely to its own re- 
sources, without any revelation or guidance." 

" No," he said. " I have not read that particular 
article. I think people nowadays are wont to 
spend so much of their time in learning what 
other people think or other people write that they 
have no time to think themselves. Hence, I have 
always been rather anxious to think things out for 
myself, and to arrive at my own conclusions. Every 
now and then I find that the thoughts which I have 

Jl'LY 20, 10O\i. 


arrived at by myself have been expressed by other 
people; bat of course they are my own." 

Mr. Rhodes. 

" That," said I, " was one of the secrets of Mr. 
Rhodes' greatness. He seldom wrote any letters, 
and spent much time brooding over a few ideas " 

" Ah," said 
Mr. Watt s. 
" Mr. Rhodes 
was a great 
p e r s onality. 
one of the 
few of the 
great ones 
Avho were lefc 
to us. Bis- 
marck, I sup- 
pose, was a 
great man; 
but here 
amongst us I 
do not see any 
other person- 
ality so great 
as Rhodes. 
You know, he 
came," said Mr. 
Watts. ' at six 
o'clock in the 
morning, and 
stood here for 
his portrait 
for two- or 
three hours. I 
never finished 
it. Some day 
I hope I shall 
do so. He 
was ,a great 
man, and yet," 
said he, " I do 
not know that 
I care very 
much for the 
idea of I m- 

Photograph by] 
I -Ml 

A Word for Little England. 

" I have no objection to a Little England if our 
Little England should live quietly, developing its 
own life and improving its own people side by side 
with other little States — a bright light in history 
for truth, generosity, courage, and enterprise — I 
do not know^ but that ideal is not higher than the 
Imperialism of which so much is talked nowaday3 

which dreams only of expanding its dominion over 
vast continents. Of course, in a world such as this 
of strife and struggle, we must be prepared to de- 
fend our frontiers, and to be free to cherish our 
own life. Mr. Rhodes' ideal of a vast federation 
of self-governing English-speaking States was 
very fine, no doubt; but I fear it is one that it is 

very difficult 
to realise. 
Speak i n g of 
America, now, 
I ihink you 
have there the 
princ 1 p 1 e of 
combat in its 
very w o r s t 
form — the un- 
sparing, ruth- 
less competi- 
tion of wealth 
with avarice 
result i n g in 
the creation 
o f gigan t i c 
Trusts, which 
threaten 1 i b - 

I explained 
the later 
theory of Am- 
erican econo- 
mists as to the 
benefit which 
the Trusts 
were confer- 
ring upon the 
commuaity by 
improving the 
efficiency and 
econ o m y of 
p r o d u ction, 
and reducing 
inefflc i e n c y 
and the cost of 
the necessa- 
ries of life. 

"Ah, well." 
said Mr. 
Watts, "if 
that is so, then I withdraw what I say. No one 
could have anything against that which, by im- 
proving efficiency, cheapened the cost of commodi- 
ties to the community; but it seems to me that 
these Trusts might be monstrously abused." 

And so our talk went on, touching upon many 
things — now Count Tolstoy and his doctrine of 
non-resistance; now^ General Gordon, whose heroic 

Watts uses neither palette uor maul-stick.) 



Julv 20, 1002. 

life and not less heroic death fired the enthusiasm 
of Mr. Watts. 

"Ah!" said he, "after all, we have produced 
some good men in England." 

The Statue of Tennyson. 

One of these good men to whom England gave 
birth in the nineteenth century is engaged in mo- 
delling plaster. Mr. Watts took me to the out- 
building, in which he was modelling a colossal 
figure of Tennyson. It represented the poet wear- 
ing his familiar cloak. The head, though not then 
placed upon the shoulders of the gigantic igure, 
began to bear a striking Kkeness to the dead poet. 

Speaking of ideal figures, Mr. Watts mentioned 
incidentally, when we were talking in the studio, 
that in painting his ideal pictures he never em- 
ployed the services of any model. By this means 
he avoided the danger of introducing the copy of 
an actual physical creature into a picture which 
was designed solely to represent an idea. If he 
found himself at a loss for any particular a:iatomi- 
cal detail, he would model the figure in clay, and 
use that as a guide to his brush. Of late Mr. 
Watts has been painting trees. His pictures, of 
panel shape, were painted from trees which can 
be seen from the windows of Limnerslease. There 
was a large unfinished picture in his studio repre- 
senting Repentant Eve. Eve, mother of all man- 
kind, stands with her back to the spectator, tread- 
ing under foot a white lily, while a long glorious 
wealth of flaxen hair streams from her head, which 
is slightly bowed in grief. 

" It is a study," said Mr. Watts, " of penitent 
woman, which is probably the highest form of 
womanhood; and yet they are often penitent, poor 
things," he said, " when they have little reason 
for remorse. They suffer much at the hands of 

The fine chivalrous spirit of lofty charity is as 
constantly present in Mr. Watts' conversation as 
it is in all his greater pictures. This unfinished 
Eve belongs to the three pictures in the Tate 
Gallery. It is in the Tate Gallery, too, where will 
be found the picture described by the character- 
istic saying, " What I spent I had; what I saved I 
lost; what I gave I have." 

The Generosity of Genius. 

Mr. Watts has been singularly reckless and 
prodigal with the gifts of his genius. Now and 
then he sells a picture merely to supply the wants 
of every day; but most of his work he has done 
without other fee or reward than the conscious- 
ness of artistic creation and the joy of his art. 
From the time he was sixteen — that is to say, 
for three score years and ten — Mr. Watts has 

maintained himself by his brush. He might have 
been a veiy wealthy man, but he is one of the 
children of light whom the skill of the children 
of the world in amassing worldly gear repels 
rather than attracts. In the course of an artistic 
career extending over the life of two generations 
Mr. Watts has been brought in contact with men 
in all sorts of positions, from the King on the 
throne to the Hooligan in the street. I asked him 
whether he had ever kept a journal. He said, no; 
he did not care for personal gossip. 

An Anecdote about Orsini. 

" I have had many strange experiences in my 
lifetime, one of which I often recall because it illus- 
trates on how very small an accident the judg- 
ment of history often depends. One time, more 
than thirty years ago, I was asked by one of the 
Orleans princes if I could recommend somebody 
to teach the Princess, afterwards Duchesse de 
Chartres, drawing. I knew an excellent Italian 
artist, who was just the man for the post. He 
was appointed, but about the time of his first 
visit I received a letter from the Prince asking 
me whether I was quite certain that my protege 
was free from all political associations. I said 
yes, he was quite innocent of politics; whereupon 
I was told the following story to explain their 
alarm. Some years before, Panizzi had been asked 
to recommend someone who would teach Italian. 
He had recommended an Italian gentleman as suit- 
able for the ix)st; but he postponed his arrvial for 
a few days. ' Imagine our horror when, on open- 
ing the newspapers the other morning, -v^re dis- 
covered that the gentleman recommended to us 
as an Italian tutor was none other than Orsini, 
who had just attempted to assassinate the Em- 
peror Napoleon! What an escape we had! For- 
tunately, he had never been brought in contact 
with us in any way; but if he had given us a single 
lesson, what would have been the immediate in- 
ference? Nothing, we felt, would ever have re- 
lieved vis from the odium of having been acces- 
sory, before the fact, to an attempt of which we 
knew nothing, and which we abhorred.' " 

G>ncemingf Duty. 

However much our conversation strayed hither 
and thither, like an eddying stream, sooner or later 
it always reverted to the main channel of Mr. 
Watts' thoughts — the importance of action and 
of human service, the relation of man to his 
Maker. I asked him whether he did not believe 
in providential guidance, and in regarding Duty 
as the word of command from the Infinite. 

■■ Well," he said, " there was Torquemada, who 
regarded it as the duty which he owed to his 
Maker to burn, torture, and destroy his fellow- 

Rbvibw of Revikws, 
July 20, 1902. 



creatures for the good of their souls and the pre- 
servation of the Catholic faith. That was to him 
the voice of God, to which he paid obedience. At 
the same time there was Calvin, who rejected the 
whole of the Roman claims, and also burned Ser- 
vetus. That was his interpretation of the voice 
of God. Were they both right? Or are we to 
imagine that they got their marching orders from 
the same source?" 

■' Well," I said, " if you accept the law of com- 
bat as the key to the law of progress, possibly 
they were both right, each carrying his orders to 
their logical ultimate, and from the antagonism 
of the two intolerances they built up the tolerance 
of our time." 

Wanted — An Auditor! 

Mr. Watts made another quaint remark. I was 
quoting to him m-y familiar saying that God Al- 
mighty had plenty of cash, and that all the mil- 
lionaires were but His money-bags, when Mr. 
Watts drily remarked, " Then I wish He would add 
to His other duties the appointment of an audi- 

" Who knows," I said, " the auditing may come 

" Maybe," he said, " but we know nothing." 

I asked him what he thought of my favourite 
specific for generating more active public senti- 
ment among those who are well-to-do on behalf 
of the disinherited of the world — namely, the com- 
pulsory exchange of dwellings for one week every 
year between rich and poor. 

Put Yourself in Their Place. 

" You would never get the rich to agree," said 
Mr. Watts. " It would no doubt be marvellously 
potent if you could, for we only exert ourselves 
to remedy evils which we can feel either in fact 
or in imagination. You know the story of the 
old lady who was out driving in a carriage on a 
cold day. As she shivered beneath her furs, she 
said to her coachman, ' It's a very cold day, John. 
When we get home I will send you out something 
to warm you.' She reached home, and went in, 
leaving the coachman waiting outside. After he 
had waited some time, he sent in to ask whether 
his mistress had not something to send out for 
him. The reply came back that John might go; 
his mistress thought it was no longer so cold as it 
had been. No wonder, seeing that she had been 
before a blazing fire for some time; but poor John, 
who sat on the box in the frosty cold, naturally 
had realised no change in the temperature. So it 
is in society. We sympathise with the ills we feel, 
but after we have been comfortable long enough, 
we forget the miseries from which we have es- 
caped, and leave others to suffer unhelped." 

The Paradise of Limnerslease* 

After lunch, while Mr. Watts rested, Mrs. Watts 
took me round the little domain, which was be- 
ginning to glow with the early glory of spring. It 
was diSicult to realise that all this wealth of 
shrubbery and wood was the growth of only eleven 
years. Everywhere the touch of the master and 
the grace of the mistress had together made Lim- 
nerslease itself a beautiful picture, the idyllic 
peace of which imprinted itself upon all its deni- 
zens. Mr. Rhodes was deeply impressed with the 
sweet serenity and calm of the artist's retreat. The 
servant who opened the door, the man who drove 
him to the station, seemed to share in the restful 

Photograph by] [E. H. Mills. 


ease which soothed and tranquillised the eager 
Colossus. " And do you know," said he in his 
odd way, " I believe if I had gone down to the 
kitchen I am sure I should have found the same 
sweet serenity on the face of the cook." 

The Art Pottery. 

A little way to the south of the house, in the 
valley, lies the art pottery works originally estab- 



July 20, ipo2. 

lished as a kind of recreation school for the use 
of the village, and now carried on as a serious 
business under the personal supervision of Mrs. 
Watts. It is a very interesting experiment, and 
one which I am very glad to know is succeeding 
well. Mrs. Watts, like her^iusband, is a great be- 
liever in the latent artistic capacity of the English 

'■ Train him early, let him taste the joy of crea- 
tive work, and you can achieve much greater 
things with him than we have yet ventured to 

The pottery naturally suggested itself as one of 
the most obvious and simple means by which to 
teach children to make things. Near Limnerslease 
lies a long deep narrow stratum of clay, the pro- 
duct of the attrition of granite boulders in ages 
long gone by, which have left behind them this 
clay as part of the inheritance of the human race. 
From this stratum the clay is brought out, disin- 
tegrated by winter's frost, then caked together, 
and passed through a mill whose revolving knives 
chop it up. It is then taken to a well, where it is 
mixed with water, and in the consistency of a 
muddy liquid it passes through a fine sieve into 
the vats, where it remains until sufficient moisture 
is removed to render it available for the potter's 
wheel. The one great staple of the pottery manu- 
facture is the great globular vase which is usually 
brought from Italy, but which can now be supplied 
from the Compton pottery. Another important de- 

partment of the output consists in the manufac- 
ture of window-boxes in what appears to be terra 
cotta, with beautifully modelled bas reliefs and 

The Work of the Village Artists. 

They also produce sundials in clay at various 
prices, everything being done with the hand, and 
nothing by machine or by mould. Endless varie- 
ties of pattern can be obtained. All the produc- 
tions are stamped with a special seal. I saw some 
of these, on the bases of which the heraldic bear- 
ings of the purchaser had been carefully modelled, 
and then affixed to the side of the globe. All man- 
ner of charming, quaint, and symbolic work can 
be seen at the pottery; but to see what can be done 
when good clay is moulded by nimble fingers under 
the direction of an artistic brain, a visit should be 
paid to the mortuary chapel in the little grave- 
yard, close to Limnerslease. It is all the work of 
the Compton people, and the ironwork at the door 
was done by the village blacksmith. 

I bade farewell to my kind hosts, and when I 
got into the trap in which I was to be driven to the 
station I felt that I was leaving behind me a de- 
lightful fragment of the ideal England of my 
youthful dreams, redolent of subtle memories of 
Shakespeare's England, a miniature Palace of Art 
embowered in the midst of the flowers and shrubs 
of a terrestrial paradise. 

In " Pearson's Magazine " for Juue Mr. Chaun- 
cey M'Govern describes a visit to a bailoon "farm'' 
in Uzica, where Mr. C. E. Meters has the monopoly 
of all such work for rhe United States. Owing to 
balloons being very dependent on weather, and 
some of the work being too dangerous to be done 
in or near any buildings, a farm is the only suit- 
able place for balloon making. Mr. F. M. White, 
describing " a day in a beehive," tells us that soon 
the little busy bee may improve hours that are not 
shining, for a Co-nnecticut apiarist is trying to cross 
bees wuth fireflies, so that they can work at night. 
The Rev. J. M. Baker describes his alarming ex- 
periences in a balloon during the severe thunder- 
storm of the summer of 1900. An article on 
Animals' Spoors is well written, and better illus- 
trated with pictures of the tracks of many wild 

How to become a novelist is the subject of a little 
symposium in the " Young Man." It is opened 
by William Le Queux, who says, " The best train- 
ing for the young novelist is undoubtedly the 
Press." His own personal experience has been 
that classical knowledge is of very little use. He 
remarks that " boys are by far the keenest judges 
of books." Among much obvious advice by liv- 
ing novelists may be cited Mr. E. F. Benson's re- 
mark, " There are only two indispensable gifts for 
a novelist, and these are an eye for dramatic situa- 
tion, and the power of putting down in plain Eng- 
lish what he sees," and Miss Ellen Tnomeycroft 
Fowler's: "I always say that writing is like flirt- 
ing; if you can't do it, nobody can teach you to 
do it; and if you can do it, nobody can keep you 

Rkvikw of Reviews, 
Jllv 20, 1902. 



Serum for the Bite of the Tsetse. 

The '• nagana," or malady of cattle caused by the 
bite of the tse:se fly, so much dreaded in parts of 
Africa, is owing to a micro-organism, the Tr\-pano- 
soma Brucci. and the serum of animals naturally 
'■ immune ' to the disease injected into the blood 
of bitten cattle might seem an antidoce, but ordi- 
narily it is not efiicacious. The serums of the horse, 
goat, pig, sheep, goose and pullet, as well as of the 
monkey, are ineffective. Human serum is. how- 
ever, active, and according to M. Laveran 
(" Comptes Rendus," April 1) makes the trypano- 
somas disappear from the blood of the sick beast. 
Apparently the substance in the human blood 
which kills the microbe of the disease is contained 
in the leucocytes (white globules). Four to five 
hours after the human serum is injected the try- 
panosomas begin to disappear as they do under 
treatment with arsenite of soda. From trials on 
rate and mice the human serum only drives away 
the microbes for some days, and another injec- 
tion is required to prolong the life of the animal. 
Repeating the dose, however, becomes at length 
ineffectual, and then a mixed treatment of arsenite 
of soda and serum is advisable. The dose of serum 
for a ra' is about two cubic centimetres, and hence 
the antidote is not very applicable to cattle: but 
M. Laveran hopes to immunise animals against the 
malady, and perhaps their serum will act as a 

Growing- Mang-olds. 

According to Professor Deherain in the "Comptes 
Rendus," March 17 (Gauthier-Villars, 55 Quai des 
Grands-Augustins, Paris), growers of mangold or 
forage betrooot in seeking large roots have lost 
sight of their nourishing qualities. The "mam- 
moth." or the " globe," for example, is often hol- 
low and watery. Smaller " semi-sugared " roots, 
containing more sugar and dry matter, grown 
closely, are more nutritive and remunerative than 
gross, insipid roots, widely grown. He estimates 
that a hectare of big roots is worth 700 francs, and 
one of small roots worth 900 francs. For the 
whole of France, this means a gain of 80 million 
francs a year. 

Photographing Sound in Air. 

An ingenious method of taking a photograph of 

the waves of sound or other disturbances in air was 

brought before the Royal Philosophical Society of 

Glasgow by Mr. H. S. Allen, of Blythswood Labora- 

tory, and is illustrated in " Nature," April 17 
(Macmillan and Co., St. Martin's Lane, London, 
W.C, 6d.) The method is based on the refraction 
of a ray of light entering the camera bj* the change 
of density in the air caused by the movement to 
be photographed. It not only portrays the waves 
of sound, but curi-ents of heated air or gas rising 
from flames, jets of gas, vortex rings in air, and 
so on. 

The Cinematograph in Meteorology. 

Charts of the weather, for example the lines or 
curves of barometric pressure at variotis points of 
the globe, have been titilised by M. Garrigou- 
Lagrange in the manner of instantaneous photo- 
graphs of moving objects in the cinematograph. In 
a paper ("Comptes Rendus." April 7) he shows how 
they can be made to exhibit continuous changes 
of the atmosphere over vast regions. 

An Electric Drier. 

The Chamber of Commei'ce. Lyons, have adopted 
the electric driers of Danto-Rogeat for use in ex- 
amining silk, cot:on. and linen fabrics, which ab- 
sorb moisture and require to be dried. The heat 
is obtained from an electric current traversing 
wires of nickel-iron between the double walls of 
an air chamber in which the cloth is dried. The 
driers are illustrated in " Cosmos." April 5 (5 Rue 
Bayard, Paris. 50 centimes), and are. of course, 
clean, smokeless, easily regulated, and safe as re- 
gards fire. 

The Wireless Telegraph of Cervera. 
Since Marconi demonstrated che usefulness of 
the wireless telegraph, rival systems have appeared 
in various countries. It is an open secret that 
Professor D. E. Hughes, F.R.S., inventor of the 
microphone, made experiments in wireless tele- 
graphy by ether waves in 1879. but his results, 
owing to a difference of opinion with Professor 
Sir G. G. Stokes, were not fully published. He is, 
however, the true pioneer of the existing wireless 
telegraph, as Lindsay, of Dundee, and also Morse, 
who preceded him. used the earth, not the air, to 
convey their signals. Popoff. in Russia, and Dr. 
O. J. Lodge, F.R.S.. also made experiments prior 
to Marconi, which were published in 1894 and 1895. 
Marconi's rivals have, therefore, a basis to work 
upon independent of his patents, and they are 
taking advantage of it. In Germany, for example, 
the Slaby-Arco system is adopted by the Govern- 
ment, and in Spain they have a system of Com- 



July 20, Jp02. 

mandant Cervera, of the Spanish Engineers. Com- 
munication across the Straits of Gibraltar between 
Tarifa, Spain, and Ceuta, Tangiers, was established 
by Cervera last year. His method, which is very 
similar to that of Marconi, is Illustrated in the 
" Electrician," April 18, by M. Guarini, another 
worker in this field. Among the peculiarities of 
the Cervera system is the employment of two re- 
lays between tlie coherer and the telegraph instru- 
ment. He also employs coherers with a high 
" critical pressure " which makes them less subject 
to '■ false " signals coming from thunderstorms or 
other disturbances of atmospheric electricity. 
Moreover, he regulates the sensitiveness of his co- 
herers by the magnetism of an electro-magnet 
which controls the pressure of the metallic filings 
forming the coherer. 

A New Fossil MammaL 

Mr. H. J. L. Beadnell announces the discovery 
of a new extinct mammal in beds of the Fayum, 
Egypt, which has been called Arsinoitherium Zit- 
teli. It was a large, heavily-built ungulate, about 
the size of a rhinoceros, and photographs of its re- 
mains are given in " Nature," March 27. 

The Arc Light and Lupus* 

Dr. Finsen's method of curing lupus by the light 
of an electric arc has led to improvements in the 
apparatus. In the " Comptes Rendus," March 3, 
MM. Broca and Chatin describe an arc with iron 
for the carbons, which gives much less heat and 
more actinic rays than the ordinary arc. Tried on 
lupus patients it gave encouraging results. 

A Violet Ray Lamp. 

Violet and ultra-violet rays of the spectrum 
being employed in medicine, Mr. Leslie Miller, of 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, has also in- 
troduced a convenient lamp for supplying them. 
As illustrated in the " Electrician," April 11 (The 
Electrician Printing and Publishing Company, 1 
Salisbury Court, B.C., 6d.), it consists of an arc 
lamp with iron points for the carbons, and the 
electricity to produce the light of the arc is ob- 
tained from an induction coil giving a spark of 
six inches and upwards. The coil is connected to a 
small " step-up " transformer which intensifies the 
current to 6,000 volts, and charges a condenser in 
oil with it. The condenser discharges through the 
iron points, and yields the violet and ultra-violet, 
or invisible rays. The whole is contained in a 
portable case or box. The light of the arc is very 
rich in actinic and fluorescent rays. Many " phos- 
phorescent " or, properly speaking, fluorescent sub- 
stances become luminous in the beam. Calcite, 
for example, glows red, and zinc silicate a beautiful 

Engtavingf with Gelatine. 

Professor Cailletet, member of the Institute of 
France, draws attention in " La Nature," April 5 
(Masson et Cie., 120 Boulevard Saint-Germain, 
Paris, 50 centimes), to the use of gelatine for en- 
graving on glass. The gelatine, especially fish 
gelatine, adheres so firmly to glass that on its re- 
moval it carries with it flakes of the glass. Hence 
the glass can be engraved by painting on it a de- 
sign or motto in gelatine of the stronger kind (for 
example, " cclle de Flandre ") dissolved m water 
by heat, and with the addition •f 6 per cent, of 
potash alum. The solution should be as thick as 
syrup, and painted on while warm with a camel- 
hair brush. Half an hour later, after the first layer 
is dry, a second is applied, so as to get a uniform 
coating free from air bubbles. The gelatine is then 
allowed to dry for twenty-four hours or so in a 
warm place — for instance, an oven at a tempera- 
ture not exceeding 40 degrees Centigrade. After 
a few hours the gelatine can be detached with the 
glass adhering to it. Vessels of thickish glass are 
the best to engrave, and the author points out that 
gelatine should not be allowed to dry in a glass. 

The Mystery of Mars. 

The planet Mara, owing to its nearness to the 
earth and its diversified surface, is the most inte- 
resting of all to the astronomer, and M. Antoniadi, 
F.R.A.S., has an illustrated paper on its recent 
changes and present aspect in " Knowledge," April 
(T. Thompson, 326 High Holborn, W.C, 6d.) Dur- 
ing the last ten years the Aonius Sinus, a dark or 
grey marking, has disappeared; the " canal " Nilo- 
syrtis, once the darkest, has faded; a new canal, 
the Nasamon, has formed; the canals Amenthes 
and Nilokeras have darkened, and so on. Such 
changes can hardly be ascribed to the seasons, or 
to errors of observation, or to formation of clouds, 
for they are not accompanied by white spots, and 
they remain a great enigma. 

Crystalline Platinum. 

Professor Liversidge has pointed out the crystal- 
line structure of gold, silver and platinum nug- 
gets, which he thinks were probably deposited from 
solutions, not fused by heat, and Mr. Thomas An- 
drews, F.R.S. (" Proceedings of the Royal Society," 
March 21, Harrison and Sons, 45 St. Martin's 
Lane, London, W.C, 2s.) finds that a small ingot 
of pure platinum has a distinctly crystalline grain. 
The larger crystals vary in size from 0.002 to 0.04 
inch, and the smaller from 0.0002 to 0.007 inch, and 
in shape are frequently cubical or hexagonal, re- 
sembling in general those of gold and silver. 

JOZ.T 20, 1902. 



The West Indian Disaster. 

How It Came About. 

In the " American Monthly Review of Reviews '* 
there is a vivid and instructive paper on the West 
Indian disaster by Mr. W. J. McGee, vice-president 
of the National Geographical Society, and eth- 
nologist-in-charge at the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology. After a graphic account of the antecedents 
■of the catastrophe, the writer thus endeavours to 
explain the dire event: — 

About 7.50 a.m. on May 8 came the great shock, of 
which that of ^May 5 was the precursor; and within ten 
minutes St. Pierre and the smaller towns of Martinique 
were in ruins. . . . Briefly, it seems evident that the 
lava mass, of which the uppermost portion exploded on 
!May 5, had continued to rise in the vent after the tem- 
porary shock due to the recoil of the initial explosion, 
.and that by the morning of Mav 8 it had reached such a 
heipiht in the throat as to find relief from the stupen- 
,dous pressure of the lower earth-crust. Coming up -with 
the high temperature of siibterranean depths, the mass 
was, like other rocks in a state of nature, saturated 
with water held in liquid state by the pressure, ard 
charged with other rnineial substances ready to flash 
into gas, or to oxidise on contact with the air; txnd 
these more volatile materials, being of less density than 
the avera^je, Avere more abundant in the upper por- 
tions of the mass. 

As the viscid plug of red-hot rock forced its way up- 
ward, the mirjlity mountain travailed, the Interior rocks 
were rent, and tlie groaning and trembling Avere con- 
veyed thrcus-li the outer strata to the surface, and 
•strange shakings of the shores and quiverings of the sea 
mariied the ajiproach of the culmination. Then the 
plug passed above the zone of rock-pressure great 
enougli to compress steam into water whatsoever the 
heat ; and with this relief the liquid flashed into steam 
and the superheated roclc matter into gases, while the 
xnioxidised compounds lenped into flame mid smoke as 
they caught the oxygen of the outer air. The lava was 
probably acidic, and hence highly viscous; and when the 
imprisoned droplets of water expanded, they formed 
bubbles, or vesicles, often much larger than the volume 
.of rock-matter; doubtless some of this matter remains 
in the form of vesicular pumice; but unquestionably im- 
mense quantities Avere blown completely into fragments 
representing the Avails of the bubbles and the angular 
spicules and thickenings betAveen bubbles. Of these 
fragments lapilli. or so-called A'olcanic ashes, consists; 
iind the ^Mont Pelee explosion Avas so violent that much 
of the matter Avas dust-fine, and drifted hundreds of 
miles before it settled from the upper air to the sea 
.or land >)eloAV. When the imprisoned Avater burst into 
«tcarji. tlie heaAner gases AA-ere eA'oh'ed, also Avith explo- 
sive violence; and Avhile the steam shot skyAvard. carry- 
ing lapilli in vast dust-clouds, these gases rolled down 
the slopes, burning (at least in part) as they Avent; and 
•at the same time the lieavier laA^a fragments, together 
Avith rock-masse^ torn from the throat of tlie crater by 
the A'iscid flood. Avere droiiped for miles around. It 
seems probable, although the despatches fail to tell the 
Avhole story, that the entire top of Blount Felee Avas 
blown into vapour, dust and flying fragments by the 
force of the explosion ; Avhile tlie shock was such that 
the earth tremljled. that some shores Avere lifted and 
•iithers submerged, that the sea-bottom Avas deformed, 
and that a tidal wave AA^as produced high enough to 

careen the ve.s.sels lying in the roadstead of St. Pierre 
and already fired by the burning gases and hot rock- 
hail. Both press despatches and physical principles in- 
dicate that it Avas tlie debacle of burning gas that con- 
sumed St. Pierre even before the red-hot rocks reached 
the roofs and balconies. , 

Meantime the aerial disturbance Avas marked by elec- 
trical discharges, Avith continuous peal of thunder and 
glare of lightning, Avhile portions of tne hot rock-pow- 
der Avere Avashed doAvn from the clouds by scalding rains. 
The heat of millions of tons of red-hot lava and 01 the 
eavth-reiiding explosion, as Avell as of the burning gase--, 
fell on ^lartinique; green things crumbled to black poAv- 
der, dry wood fell into smoke and ashes, clothing flashed 
into flame, and the A'cry bodies of men and beasts burst 
Avith the fervent heat. Such, in brief, Avere the evil 
events of Pelee and St. Pierre for ]May 8 . . . yet the 
most impressiA'e example of A'olcanic actiA'ity in the 
annals of men Avas Avitnessed less than a generation ago. 
. . . Pelee is but a pigmy beside Krakatoa. 

The Five Stages of Vulcanism. 

The Avriter thus describes the genesis of the 

volcano: — 

As pointed out by PoAvell, vulcanism Is one of the 
stages in a normal cycle of continent groAvth. The 
stage is that of loading — i.e., of accumulation of sedi- 
mentary masses — as at the mouth of the ^lississippi, the 
Amazon, and other great rivers; the second stage may be 
called that of baking (tumefaction Avould be a more 
specific term — '' rise of the isoyotherms " has been tisedl 
by the conduction of earth heat from the hot interior 
upward through the sediments, which are thereby indu- 
rated, and sometimes crumpled and metamorphosed; 
the third stage is that of uplift, partly through the ex- 
pansion consequent on heating from belOAv; the fourth 
stage is that of unloading — i.e., degradation^ by rains 
and riA'ei-s Avhen the former sediments are lifted abov» 
sea level to again become dry land; and the final stage 
is A'ulcanism, or extra A-asation of the hot rock-matter 
of the depths partially relieved from pressure by the 

The characteristic optimism of the American 

shines through the whole paper, and closes with 

the final reflection: — 

]\fartinique has appalled the world bv the magnitude 
of her catastrophe; at the same time she has given the 
Avorld a ncAv revelation of human solidarity; and she 
noAv promises material help in measuring the strength 
of Vulcan for the benefit of all mankind and all future 

Rhodes Reflected in Many Minds. 

Mr. F. Edmund Gjiurett. 

Mr. P. Edmund Garrett conLributes to the "Con- 
temporary Review " for June an admirable article 
upon " The Character of Cecil Rhodes." Mr. Gar- 
rett first met Mr. Rhodes when sent out as special 
commissioner of the " Pall Mall Gazette " to South 
Africa in 1889. He was afterwards appointed editor 
of the " Cape Times," and for several years was 
continually brought in close contact with Mr. 



July 20, igo2. 

Rhodes. It was unfortunate that Mr. Rhodes never 
took Mr. Garrett as much into his confidence in 
regard to the deeper things— the greater ideals 
which have only recently been revealed to the 
world at large; but he saw quite sufficient of Mr. 
Rhodes to recognise the greatness of his character 
and to know the rank absurdity of most of the 
calumnies which were used to discredit the great 
African in the opinion of people at home. In this 
article he deals very effectively with some of the 
slanders of which Mr. Rhodes was the victim, and 
supplies U3 at the same time with a very vivid, 
life-like picture of Mr. Rhodes in his prime. He 
begins his paper by describing an evening at 
Groote Schuur, when Mr. Rhodes showed him his 
wrist. Mr. Garrett says: — 

AMiere a doctor feels one's pulse, there stood out, as it 
were, a knot, and as the artery pumped and laboured, 
one could count the throbs by the eye, without laying 
a finger there. 

" Look! you never saw a man with a pulse like that? 
No, no " — he brushed aside some commonplace reassur- 
ing remark of mine — " not like that. Do you know 
what you see there? You see the heart." 

" A Picture of Him." 
It was then Mr. Garrett first realised that Mr. 
Rhodes was a man living under a Damocles sword, 
and that he knew It. He was very stoical and 
noble about it, wrote a friend who saw Mr. Rhodes 
after the end was in sight, only sometimes there 
was a " caged-soul look in his eyes " — 

Can I call up a picture of him for the reader? The 
leonine head, always looking large, even on the large 
loose-knit body; the light crisp hair, grizzling fast at the 
temples, tumbled impatiently on end above the wide 
and massive forehead — 

" — the prone brow. 
Oppressive with its mind;" 

the face red, tanned, weather-beaten — an outdoor face; 
the chin and jaw formidable, except when lit by an 
attractive, almost boyish smile; the prominent, light- 
grey, absent-minded eyes — now gloomily lookmg down 
at the outstretched wrist on the table, and at that me- 
nacing, throbbing knot of pulse. 

A Denial of Calumnies. 
Mr. Garrett then proceeds to deal seriatim with 
the various calumnies of which Mr. Rhodes has 
been the victim. He says that there was not a 
word of truth in all the stories so freely circulated 
as to the evil life which Mr. Rhodes was reported 
to lead. He says: — 

There was not a word of truth in them. It would be 
hard for a man of the active world to plan out a more 
strenuous, temperate, almost abstemious life than that 
of Cecil Rhodes in his prime; 

He was up at six every morning taking his mountain 
ride; all day he was transacting the business of his 
complex ganglion of interests . . . about eleven o'clock 
he would suddenly -without a word and steal off to 
bed. I have heard him say things brutal or c3Tiical — it 
was an ugly foible — but things gross, such as men even 
of exemplary life often affect in the licence of the 
smoking-room, never. He was no a.«cetic ... but the 
character of a voluptuary- was one for which he held 
and expressed the deepest contempt. ... As for drink- 
ing habits of the kind and degree attributed to him by 
the widely-spread rumour of all, it would have been im- 

possible, as a doctor once remarked, for a man with 
heart mischief like Rhodes' in his later years to live 
at all with such excess — much more to live as strenuous 
a M-orking life as his. The truth is that the life-work 
which was to Mr. Rhodes a devouring passion, if it left 
too little scope for some of the virtues, left even less for 
most of the vices. 

His Personal Courage. 

Equally false were the stories which threvv' doubt 
upon his personal courage: — 

During the Matabele war he made no pretence of en- 
joving being under fire. " One may get hit— in the 
stomach— very unpleasant," he remarked in his de- 
tached, contemplative tone; and then, as the peculiar 
stream recurred, caused by the lacerating slugs the rebels 
fired from their elephant guns, he could not help duck- 
ing, as all beginning do under fire, adding at once in a 
sort of naive apology to the companion who was riding 
close to I'lus: ''Absurd, isn't it, how one can't help 
ducking? Not a bit of good!" and riding on all the 

If that is cowardice, it is such cowardice as the un- 
mortal Chicot marked and admired in Henry of Navarre 
at the siege of Cahors. 

What He Expected from His Friends. 

Like Mr. Gladstone, he was accused of preferring 

to have about him men of second-rate mind and 

even second-rate character: — 

If he found a man easy and useful, he had a large way 
of brushing aside any objection brought against him. 
. . 'The touchstone, "If ye love me keep my command- 
ments, is one that men with a mission, holy or secu- 
lar, are always prone to apply. " If you're my friend, 
suuport my policy," was the Rhodes version. And, mag- 
nanimous as he could be to a foe, he had no bowels for a 
professing friend who had once .supported him and ceased 
to do so. . . . He was no less immitigable in loyalty to 
those whom he deemed loyal to him. ... It was always 
easy to strike sparks from him about " Dr. Jim's " 
escapade. " Jameson, at any rate, tried to do some- 
thing," he would flash back. " All of you down here do 
nothing at all— except jabber, jabber, jabber!" 

The Wife He Needed. 

Women readily liked Mr. Rhodes, but he was 
wedded to celibacy. He liked celibates to work 
with. He was no misogynist. But he had a 
horror of the uxorious domesticity with its petty 
horizon which sometimes absorbs a good man out of 
the fighting effectives of life. If Mr. Rhodes had 
married the right kind of woman, it might have 
done him a great deal of good. Mr. Garrett says: — 

Such a woman must have been a dreamer devout, a 
sister of his imperial order: the sort of wonian who 
would take his own view of peerages and officialism's 
("I want the power — let who will wear the peacock's 
feathers," was a favourite saying of his I ; but one whose 
feminine insight would have helped him to be more 
patient of detail, more scrupulous of methods, to apply 
his abundant ideality to men as well as to continents, 
to " every day's most quiet need " as well as to pos- 

No Slave of His Millions. 

" The most signal of all perversities that blamed 
Rhodes for the wrong faults " was the accusation 
that he cared for his millions. Even the most 
cursory study of the facts of Rhodes' life showed 
that for him finance was merely the creature of 
politics, not politics of finance. " The will, unique 
document as it is, would prove little if it w&re 


July 20, 1902. 



not of one piece, without seam, with the life-work 
whicTi went before and which it is meant to carry 

on •': — 

Rhodes was not a rich man who took up the Empire 
as a hobby when he was tired of maKtng money. He 
forraed the ideal first, tlie fortune afterwards. . . . Had 
finance remained his mistress, instead of polities, few 
can doubt that he might have doubled his fortune, and 
rivalled, as some of his friends rivalled, the American 

Mr. Garrett vigoixmsly defends Mr. Rhodes' 
famous speech in which he referred to the Union 
Jax;k as the best commercial asset in the world. 
He quotes the context of the speech, and says: — 

This is the speech from which Rhodes has been written 
down a soulless materialist by people, many of whom 
probably have never risen to as much idealism in their 
most inspired moments — let alone at a company meeting. 

" Every Man Has His Price." 
Mr. Garrett then passes on to discuss the ques- 
tion whether Mr. Rhodes held with Walpole that 
every man had his price. He admits that: — 

A man does not spend the spring and first summer 
of manhood in such work as the Kimberley amalga- 
mation, and come out at the end with mind quite un- 
subdued to that it works in. like the dver's hand. . . . 
The patronage secretaries of Administrations everywhere 
are persons wlio walk not with their heads in the clouds, 
perhaps rather with their feet in the mud. 

And Mr. Rhodes had enough patronage in his 
hands to malve a cynic of a saint. Nevertheless, 
Mr. Garrett maintains that there was not any truth 
in the language often used — as if Rhodes had made 
Government at the Cape a sink of corruption. 
Even taking the share allotment at its worst, there 
are singularly few Rhodes scandals or jobs to be 
named. " Government at the Cape, judged by 
the standard of the British colonies at large — a 
standard probably as high as any outside these 
islands — is clean." 

" No Angel, But ." 

The worst that can be said about Mr. Rhodes 

is that he would have been a greater man if he 

had only expected and so encouraged ordinary 

people to be actuated by motives more nearly on 

a level with his own. Finally, Mr. GaiTett deals 

Avith the accusation that Mr. Rhodes was not a 

sincere and disinterested Imperialist. He says: — 

In my opinion, no politician has. or ever had, a record 
on any subject of more persistency and consistency than 
the record of Cecil Rhodes as a hfe-long worker for the 
British Empire, conceived aa (1) self-governing in it.« 
parte; (2) federated at its centre; (3) expanding over 
the whole of the unappropriated earth. If ne did not 
Avork for that, from dreamy youth through strenuous 
manhood, he worked for nothing. . . . Cecil Rhodes was 
no angel, but a big, rough-grained, strong-headed, great- 
hearted man. 

The ancient history of Rhodesia, when the fierce 
Phoenicians mined the gold which was borne to 
Jerusalem to be built into King Solomon's Temple, 
cast a profound spell over Rhodes' romantic mind. 
" He, too, with ' the gold of that land,' would build 

a temple — a temple of so vast design and mighty 
sweep that the poet's words about another moun- 
tain burial seem hardly too high for Cecil 
Rhodes: — 

•' Lofty designs should close in like effects; 
Loftily lying 
Leave him, still loftier than the Avorld suspects. 
Living and dying." 

Hon. Evelyn Cecil's View. 
In the " Pall Mall" for June the Hon. Evelyn 
Cecil, M.P., writes of " Mr. Rhodes, the Matoppos, 
and Inyanga," illustrating his paper with very good 
photographs. He visited both farais in 1899, when 
Mr. Rhodes was shut up in Kimberley. 

The Matoppo Farm. 

The Matoppo farm is eighteen miles from Bula- 

wayo: — 

A wonderful reservoir was in course of construction, 
built by Mr. Rhodes at a cost of £25,000, for irrigating 
the adjacent land, and possibly for supplying additional 
Avater to BulaAvayo. Almost needless to say, it Avill be, 
in any case, of great advantage to the district. Seventy 
head of ostriches Avere also being kept on the farm; 
and they were largely fed on chopped-up prickly pears, 
of which there gTOA\-s a natural abundance. 

So do blue water-lilies and hibiscus abound; 
while baboons scamper about the Matoppo rocks. 

The World's View. 

Mr. Cecil says: — 

And yet it is but fair to add that the panorama is not 
really one of those Avhich would be universally admitted 
to rank among the verj- finest in the AA'orld. . But the 
World's View is unique and inspiring, and bears witness 
to the variety of Nature's beauties. 

"The Last Great English Adventukeb." 
The " World's Work," in its comments upon the 
death of Mr. Rhodes, says that he was the last 
great English adventurer, the type of man who 
changes the map of the world and that often puts 
posterity under the greatest obligations to him. 
His one serious mistake was his misjudgment of 
the Boers; and the great service that he rendered, 
AVhich enormously outweighs all his mistakes, was 
in laying the secure foundation of English control 
over a large area of Africa. His will gave the 
world a clearer idea of the man than any revela- 
tion that he made of himself during his life-time. 
From whatever point of view his will be studied. 
it shows great breadth and common sense. Mr. 
Rhodes saw clearly that the great fact of the 
modern world was the leadership of the EJnglish, 
and his wish was for the unification of the Eng- 
lish in every land. And this was his method of 
doing it — to keep at one of the great EJng- 
lish Universities a succession of selected youth 
who show vigorous physical, moral, and intellec- 
tual qualities. This large aim, this conception of 
the capacity, the obligation, and the duty of our 
race, is the same large aim that has in some form 
filled the mind of every great constructive Eng- 



July 20, ipo2. 

lish-speaking man, from King Alfred's time to our 
own. The emphasis of the fact that English- 
speaking men in every country have the same 
dominant traits, and have a high obligation to 
spread and to strengthen their civilisation — this 
is the great service that Mr. Rhodes did by his 
will, and it is one of the greatest and most direct 
services to civilisation that any man has done in 
our generation. 

A Funeral Poem. 
Mr. Theodore Watts Dunton contributes to the 
" Empire Review " a poem on " The Burial of Cecil 
Rhodes." It begins thus: — 

Farewell, farewell! Your mausoleum here 
Of Nature-builded towers and bastioned pilec. 
Stretching right on for half a hundred miles, 
STOibols yourself, immortal pioneer- 
Symbols yourself, imperious, strong, austere. 
Save where a lonely lakelet, dimpling, smiles 
With purple bloom of lotus-Hly isles; 
SjTnbols yourself, for it has no compeer. 

The poet hears the Captains of the Past, 

All of old England's hero pedigree, 

saying as they stand and gaze on the wild World's 


Pray God ye be not burying there the last 

Of England's sons who keep her strong and free! 

The poet then imagines the ghost of Umsilefcatze 

walking at night over the Matoppos to fight the 

shade of Rhodes:^ 

Full well we know which warrior-ghost will stay. 
Full well we know, great captain, how will end 

The midnight battle of the rival shades; 

Full well we know that ere the moonlight fades 
Your foe will be transfigured to your friend, 
As on that day when, all unarmed, you sate 
Amid the savage foes in calm debate. 


Lower the coffin while the sunlight shed 
Around this cragg\' platform's narrow floor 
Smiles on the circle of boulders, vast and hoar, 

KindUng their lichen-mantles, yellow and red. 

Lower the coffin to its rock-hewn bed — 
Cover our ^^Teaths with that proud flag he bore 
From Orange River to the steaming shore 

Where Tanganyika waters gleam outspread. 

Now let violets fall; he loved them well — 
He loved old England, loved her flowers, her grass, 

And in his dreams he smelt her woodland smell. 
Now roll the slab above him; let the brass 

On which the simple words are graven tell 
Where sleeps a king whose sceptre shall not pass. 


In the Grip of the Brigands/^ 

Miss Ellen M. Stone continues, in the .June 

" Sunday Magazine," the story of her enforced stay 

among the brigands of Macedonia. Whether she 

Intends it or not, she certainly succeeds in making 

us more interested in her captors than in herself 

and her fellow-captive. They seemed to have taken 

every care in their power of the two women. She 

says: — 

After they liad announced their reason for our capture 
we saw in them a constant effort to treat us humanely. 

" We took you for money." they liad said, seuten- 
tiously. " It is for our interest to keep you well, that 
we may get the ransom." 

Chivalrous Captoi-s. 

Here is a proof that something nobler than 

cupidity influenced them: — 

Mrs. Tsilka had told me her sacred secret of her com- 
ing motherhood, which she had not breathed as yet to 
mother or husband. Although it seemed almost like 
the desecration of what was most holy, and most pe- 
culiarly her own, with her consent I had acquainted the 
brigands with the fact of her delicate situation, on one 
of the first days of our captivity. Then I based upon 
it a strong plea that they should free us, while there 
was yet time, and not lay themselves liable to the 
curse which highwaymen hold in special horror— the 
curse which they believe to be entailed if they cause 
any injury to a woman with child, or to her little one 
either before or after its birth. Tlie men looked grave 
as they listened to me. Perhaps they thought it was 
a ruse on our part to escape. . . . As time passed 
on both of us became convinced that there was no mis- 
taking God's plan that Mrs. Tsilka should be captured 
■with me. Her helplessness appealed most strongly 
to the brigands. One of the steadiest among them made 
her his special care. 

Doing Their Shopping for Them. 

The thoughtfulness of the brigands showed itself 

in many ways. " With food," says Miss Stone, 

" we were supplied for those first days ad nauseam. 

Other wants were not so easily supplied ": — 

One day one of the brigands shamefacedly alluded to 
the fact that we had no change of undergarments. "No. 
we've nothing but what we Avore when you captured us," 
I assured him, for being so much Mrs. Tsilka's senior, 
she wished me to be chief speaker, although she was my 
chaperon! " I've lost all my handkerchiefs," she ad- 
mitted. " And her blouse sleeves are in ribbons," 
I added. " Then make a list of most indispensable 
things," .said our guard, " and we wili do what we can 
about getting them." Later we missed the Good Man, 
and wondered whether he had not gone ou a search for 
them. Our surmise proved correct, when after a 
few days he returned with some undergarments and 
socks — men's, of course — some cotton for our handker- 
chiefs, neeules, thimbles (which fitted us, too), spools 
and cloth for two blouses. Here, then, was work for 
us to do! 

The result of their dressmaking was ludicrous 
enough; but, as Miss Stone half-comically remarks, 
" neither of us had any desire to look at all attrac- 
tive in that company." 

What Lord Beaconsfield Has to Answer For. 

Good Miss Stone turned her enforced leisure to 

account by endeavouring to evangelise her guards. 

She was much shocked by their " infidel 

blasphemy." What they told her of President 

McKinIey"s assassination seems to have upset her 

terribly. But patriotism was a passion not less 

powerful with her captors, as a most significant 

outburst showed. One of the brigands, whom Miss 

Stone had dubbed " the Good Man," had insisted 

on the captives writing to their friends that if the 

ransom were not forthcoming in ten days the 

brigands would " proceed to the operation " of 

taking their captives' lives: — 

"If the full amount of ransom cannot be raised in this 
short time," I found courage at last to say, "you cannot 

Rbvikw ok nnviKWs, 
July 20. l'J02 



proceed to murder me, a woman w)io has done you 
no harm. It would be a shame and a reproach to 
Macedonia." At this the Good Man (heaven help the 
title!) burst out in uncontrollable fur>': "Why shame 
and reproach to take the life of one woman, when un- 
numbered women and children in our Macedonia suffer 
nameless outrages, and are put to death daily!" His 
fierceness showed me the uselessness of any appeal for 
mercy to these men. 

His retort was just. Lord Beaconsfield in hand- 
ing back Macedonia into the power of the Turk 
was guilty of a far more heinous crime than any 
these i)oor brigands had committed. 

Comfort came to the captives in various ways. 
A sudden burst of rainbow at one of their darkest 
moments seemed to them a veritable message from 
heaven. An actual letter from an old pupil raised 
their joy to overflowing. Then they began to notice 
their captors' way of life: — 

We noticed them occasionally playing games, rolling 
stones in the open square of the deserted sheepfold on 
the mountain side in which we were then confined. 
Once in a while two of the merrier hearted among them 
would stand up for a dance, to the accompaniment of 
the air hummed by the music lover. 

Thanksgiving Turkey in Captivity. 

The eve of Thanksgiving Day overpowered Misa 

Stone with memories of home, so much so as to 

lead her guards to inquire of Mrs. Tsilka the reason 

of her sorrow: — 

That young brigand laid her words to heart, and must 
have influenced his companions in the band, for the 
next morning, when we had made our scanty prepara- 
tions for the day. he said, nonchalantly. " A turkey has 
been killed. How would you like it cooked?" [Turkey 
is the universal Thanksgiving Day dinner in America.] 
The touch of kindness, so unexpected, from a captor to 
his captive, dissipated in great measure the cloud of 
sadness which weighed down my spirits, and thanking 
Ood for this mercy, we put on a more cheerful mien. 
In another way they made the morning appear like 
Christmas morning, for another brigand came in and 
spread out upon our pallet of straw purchases which 
Bome one had made for us. There were warm woollen 
socks, a pair of thick woollen nether garments — over 
which we laughed and laughed — in place of tlie long leg- 
gings for which we had asked. During the cold winter 
nights of our subsequent travels we saw that the bri- 
gands' choice for us was much wiser than our own 
would have been. 

The band had taken to the mountains in the 
winter, and the huts they put up were scant protec- 
tion froni the cold. " The men covered ua with 
their cloaks, leaving themselves exposed to the 
rigours of the winter nights." 

The most thrilling experience recorded this 
month by Miss Stone was an attack by another 
gang of highwaymen, who tried to wrest the rich 
prize from their hands. " During this moment 
Mrs. Tsilka and I decided the question that if the 
worst oame to the worst we would take our death 
at the hands of the guard who stood over us rather 
than fall into the hands of those unknown high- 
waymen, or of Turkish troops." Fortunately the 
assailants were beaten back, and the party 

Prince Henry's American Impressions. 

Admiral Robley Evans, who was deputed to ac- 
company Prince Henry on his tour through Ame- 
rica, gives an interesting account of the Prince's 
impressions in " McClure's Magazine " for May. 
Prince Henry saj's that his brother the Kaiser said 
to him when he started, " Keep your eyes and ears 
open and your mouth shut." The Prince, however, 
seems to have opened his mouth pretty frequently, 
although he obeyed instructions in so far as ab- 
staining from saying anything very remarkable. 
But he was quick in picking up American slang, 
although he denied that " hustle " was slang. He 
said, " It is a good old English word, and I learned 
it when I was studying in England." When a 
gamin accosted him with " Hello, Prince, how are 
you?" he would answer, " Hello, how are you?" 

The Guarding of the Prince. 
Admiral Evans was much impressed by the gene- 
ral intelligence of the Prince. He went everywhere, 
saw everything that he was permitted to see, and 
lamented very much that he was not allowed to see 
more. For instance, he was not allowed to visit, 
the stock-yards of Chicago, where tne sheep are 
slaughtered, because the proprietors, with so many 
Poles in their employ, wcmld not guarantee his 
safety. Great precautions were taken to safeguard 
the Prince from attack. Ample precautions were 
taken long in advance in evei-y city that he visited. 
Every Anarchist of note was shadowed for days 
before the Prince's arrival, and a great many of 
them were locked up as a precautionary measure, 
to learn the efficacy of the Habeas Corpus Act not 
till after the Prince was gone. 

The Prince on After-Dinner Oratory. 
The special train in which the Prince travelled 
impressed him much. On one occasion the Prince 
was allowed to ride on a new 120-ton engine for 
100 miles on a Pennsylvania railroad. Unfortu- 
nately the trip was interrupted by a wreck, which 
delayed the train for two hours before the line could 
be cleared. He was not impressed by after-dinner 
oratory, and considered the habit of speech-mak- 
ing after meals as distinctly a bad custom. " What 
an extraordinary way of entertaining a guest, to 
set him down and make speeches at him. There 
is no chance for conversation. The people who 
have to make speeches never say anything but yes 
or no until they have delivered the orations with 
which they are primed." It was a wonder he was 
not talked to death. They even made speeches to 
him in the middle of the bridge at the Niagara 

America's Most Beautiful Women. 

The Prince seems to have enjoyed himself ex- 
tremely, notwithstanding thgpe small drawbacks. 



July 20, IQ02. 

He thought the women of Milwaukee the most 
beautiful whom he had met in America, and he 
was so pleased with his visit that he is looking 
forward to returning to the States, in which case 
he would go in his private capacity, make Mil- 
waukee his headquarters, and strike out from there 
into the great North-West, which attracts him 
strongly. The Prince was very much amused by 
the eight big policemen who were told off to guard 
him at Chicago. Each of these gentlemen was 
6 ft. 4 in. in height. They were got up in evening 
dress and silk hats. This costume they wore not 
only in the evening, but also the first thing next 

Why Germany Has No Submarines. 
Admiral Evans says he considers Prince Henry 
is at the very top of his profession, and they had 
naturally many conversations together upon profes- 
sional topics. The Germans, he says, are doing 
nothing at all in submarine boats, nothing but 
watching and waiting. " Why?" asked Captain 
Evans. " We cannot afford it," answered the 
Prince. " We can utilise our energy to better ad- 
vantage in developing the fighting ships for the su- 
premacy of the sea." One of the disappointments 
of the Prince was that he made so few new ac- 
quaintanceships with American women, only one 
or two in Boston, four or five in Nev/ York. 

Ihe Prince and Booker Washington. 
The Prince showed a great appreciation of the old 
American negro melodies, aad Booker Washington 
was presented to him by his special request. " I 
have always had great sympathy," he said, " with 
the African race, and I want to meet the man whom 
I regard as the leader of the race." He talked to 
Booker Washington for ten minutes, and the ease 
with which Washington conducted himself was 
greater than that of almost any other man who 
met the Prince in America. 

Mysteries of Life and Mind. 

The Discoveries of an American Scientist. 

The most notable article in the " Fortnightly 
Review " for June is Mr. Carl Snyder's paper, with 
the title of " Mysteries of Life and Mind." It is 
an extremely interesting and brightly written de- 
rcription of the astonishing discoveries of Dr. Loeb, 
of Chicago, and of his pupil. Dr. Matthews. If all 
Dr. L/oeb's discoveries are verified, it becomes plain 
that we have an entirely new science by which all 
vital processes are explained on a purely physical 

Dr. Lioeb as Discoverer. 

Dr. Lioeb, says Mr. Snyder, is a young man, just 
over forty, a German by birth, who has been at 

Chicago University only eight years. He is in his 
own words "an American citizen." The central 
theory upon which he bases all his discoveries is 
that the forces which rule in the realm of living 
things are not different from those which we know 
in the inanimate world. It is the self-same force 
which rules over the bird to which we ascribe In- 
telligence, and to the flower to which we ascribe 
nothing more than the attraction of light. A 
mechanical force directs both. Animals, like 
plants, are nothing but more or less complicated 
arrangements of proteid substances responding in 
a very simple way to the simple physical forces 
which we know about us: — 

Heat may act as a repellent force; and so, for example, 
if a moth arrive in the neijrhbourhood of a flame, so 
that the pushing effect of the heat just balances the 
pulling effect of the light, the moth will go round 
and round, as planets spin about the sun, or, in other 
cases, describe a curious zigzag motion, something like 
a comet. There is nought here but the play of phy- 
sical forces. 

The Secret of Animal Structure. 

Dr. Loeb, as a corollary to this, strikes at the 

morphologist's idea that the shape and looks of an 

animal result from complex arrangements in the 

germ from whence it springs. Experiments made 

by him shov/ this theory to be unfounded: — 

Scores of experiments, curious and fanciful, discon- 
certing, too. followed. Mere contact with a solid sub- 
stance could turn one organ into another. Organs were 
grown in the most absurd places, others were trans- 
planted. This v.'ork was, of course, taken up by 
hundreds of other investigators all over the world, and, 
as a purely fantastic instance, Ribbert has recently 
shown that a mammary gland transplated to the ear 
of a guinea-pig would begin to secrete normally when a 
litter was born. 

In short. Dr. Loeb has proved that there is no 
complex germ-structure in the germ cells from 
which animals spring, and that their varying forms 
are simply a reaction between a specific kind of 
protoplasm and the physical forces of light, heat, 
contact, and chemism. That being so, we get to 
experiments showing the reaction of chemical 
forces upon organisms living and dead. 

Life as Chemical Action. 

One day Di-. Loeb took up the problem of the rhyth- 
mical contractions of the jellyfish, a subject dear to Ro- 
manes, the protege of Darwin. If the upper part of 
the animal be cut away, the contractions stop. Dr. 
Loeb tried placing the beheaded animal in a solution 
of common salt; the movements began again. A trace 
of potassium or calcium added, they stopped again. 

But if this be true of a lowly jelly-fish, perhaps it 
is equally time of the rhythmical beat of the heart. 
And this Dr. Loeb found to be the case. An excised 
heart could be kept beating for hours, stopped, started, 
quickened, or slowed, simply by changing slightly the 
chemical character of the solution in which it was placed. 
These were exciting days. 

By such means an ordinai*y muscle oan be made 
to beat in rhythm. 

aB\nEw OF Rbviews, 
July 20, 1902, 



Artificial Life-Creation. 

Having got so far, the manufacture of life comes 
within sight. Dr. Loeb has actually succeeded in 
fertilising eggs by artificial means. Hitherto no 
one dreamed that an egg could develop without the 
remotest aid of the sperms. Dr. Loeb changed that 
belief, and has shown that chemical action is suf- 
ficient to produce life in unfertilised eggs: — 

" Pursuing this idea, I took unfertilised eggs, and after 
many trials succeeded in finding a solucion of chloride 
of magnesium, which caused the eggs to develop to the 
same stage as they do normally in an aquarium. Sub- 
sequently other salts and the eggs of other animals 
would produce the same result. These results, at first 
contested and even scouted, have been obtained by other 
workers in many lands. There is no longer a shadow 
of doubt that artificial parthenogenesis, ns the process 
is technically termed, is an established fact." 

In a strict sense, the unfertilised egg cannot be termed 
living matter. The first characteristic of living matter 
is that it can grow. In other Avords, here is an organic 
product, like sugar, or starch, or the fats, which, treated 
chemically, can be developed into a living being. It was 
near to a realisation of the dreams of Berthelot and 
Claude Bernard, aye. and of every chemist who ever 
bordered the mysteries of life, the manufacture of life 
in the laboratory. 

How the Nerves Act. 
The process of sensation is also entirely me- 
chanical. The mysterious and elaborate structure 
which present-time physiology attributes to the 
ganglions and nerve cells is quite useless; all that 
we need ask for in a nerve are the most elementary 
properties of protoplasm, that it may conduct and 
react to stimuli. The nerves consist of nothing 
more than colloid articles in suspension, and a 
nerve conducts better the nearer it approaches to 
a state of jelly. The effect of anaesthetics, on the 
other hand, is merely to make the solution thinner, 
and thus the nerve loses its susceptibility to excite- 
ment. Professor Matthews developed this theory, 
and had made a nerve operate and react by purely 
physical means: — 

If, said Dr. Matthews, the negative ions be in excess 
in the solution, and the positive and negative ions in 
the nerve be just balanced, the effect would be the pre- 
cipitation of the first layer of colloid particles bearing 
positive charges, and in contact with the solution. This 
would release a certain number of negative ions lying 
next in the nerve sheath, and these in turn would pre- 
cipitate the adjoining colloids. This would result in a 
kind of wave of precipitation, travelling along the nerve, 
-and at the end would be a set of free negative ions, 
ready to call the muscle into action. The nerve impulse, 
then, is a consecutive series of precipitations. 

But it remained to be explained how a mere mechani- 
•cal stimulus, a push or a blow, could set up this wave. 
This can be accounted for by supposing the effect is 
the same as when raindrops on a window coalesce when 
i,he window is struck. Two or more colloid particles 
coming together would have their surfaces reduced, 
hence their electrical charge reduced, hence the release 
<of a corresponding number of negative charges. The 
"ivave is started. 

The " Caxton Magazine " for May is chiefly 
notable for its paper on those mysterious per- 
sonages, " The Men of the ' Tinjes,' " which we 
have noticed elsewhere. 

A Sketch of John D. Rockefeller. 

In the ■' Cosmopolitan " for June, Mr. Julian 
Ralph gives a brief sketch of the career of John D. 
Rockefeller, whom he considers easily the greatest 
among American captains of industry. 

Mr. Rockefeller "combines with this position that 
of a master of finance; and it may be that in this 
field he will yet prove as great as, or greater than, 
Mr. Pierpont Morgan. But as this one is, first of 
all, a financier, so the other is, above and beyond 
everything, a master in the industrial field. It is 
surprising how very much is told of Mr, Rockefel- 
ler, and how very little is known concerning him." 
Mr. Ralph explains why it is impossible that any- 
one should know just what the amount of Mr. 
Rockefeller's wealth is. Mr. Rockefeller has testi- 
fied in court that he himself does not know within 
ten millions of dollars what his fortune amounts 
to. If he did know, the fluctuation of the listed 
stocks on the exchange must alter the sum of his 
wealth with every hour and minute of each work- 
ing day. 

Farmhand and Office Boy. 
John Davidson Rockefeller's father was a farmer 
in Tioga Count3-, N.Y. He was born in 1839, and 
his childhood was spent in a family of God-fearing, 
hard-working, rugged, and simple people, whose 
lives and examples furnished a solid, i-ock-like 
foundation for their children to build upon. 

" At the outset, John D. Rockefeller progressed 
very slowly toward the making of a fortune. He 
earned a quarter as his first wages, for hoeing a 
neighbour's potato-patch. He hired out In the 
summer-time to work for the farmers of the neigh- 
bourhood; when his people removed to Cleveland, 
he worked as an oflSce boy. In time he cut loose 
from his home ties and went to St. Louis, where he 
became a clerk in a commission house. He is said 
to have saved only $500 by the time he was ready 
to go into business for himself; only $1,000 when 
he was more than thirty years of age. He started 
in the commission business for himself In St. LoTiis, 
taking as a partner Mr. M. B. Clark, who was for 
a long time afterward associated with him, and 
who, while both remained in their original busi- 
ness, engaged with Mr. Rockefeller in the conduct 
of a petroleum refinery on the Mississippi River, 
above St. Louis. The idea that there were the 
potentialities of great wealth in the oil refinery 
business was suggested to Mr. Rockefeller by a 
porter in another store in St. Louis, who joined the 
young speculators, and who afterward became fa- 
mous and rich by this connection. This was Samuel 
Andrews. The refinery, a petty concern, was the 
geed from which grew the gigantic Standard Oil 
Company, the largest and mightiest corporation in 
the world, ^rhich supplies the world with kerosene, 



July 20, 1^02. 

ind acknowledges but one considerable competi- 
tor — the Russian company, whose wells are at the 
'oot of the Caucasus Mountains." 

Joined by Messrs. Flagler and Vanderbilt. 
It became necessary to raise money to carry on 
;h© business properly; and Mr. Rockefeller had to 
:ake a new partner, who furnished $60,000— Mr. 
Henry M. Flagler, the son-in-law of a wealthy dis- 
tiller. Mr. Flagler is given credit for much of the 
sreat success of the Standard Oil Company. Then 
Mr. Rockefeller bought out Mr. Andrews for a 
round million dollars, and sold the interest to 
William H. Vanderbilt at a quarter of a million 
dollars profit. In the meantime Clark had bought 
aut the St. Louis commission business from Rocke- 
feller, preferring that to oil refining, so that 
Rockefeller and Flagler are the real parents of the 
Standard Oil Company. 

How the Rockefeller Wealth is Invested. 
" A very large proportion of Mr. Rockefeller's 
wealth is now in the form of securities and pro- 
perties in no way connected with the petroleum 
business. He has shown amazing shrewdness in 
buying mining and railroad properties when tiroes 
were bad, or the owners of these stocks were wil- 
ling, for other reasons, to sell at low prices. In 
this way he has come to own stocks and bonds in 
seventeen great railroads. Other large sums he 
has invested in sugar trust, Brooklyn Union Gas, 
Consolidated Gas (New York), natural gas in Ohio, 
Federal Steel, coal mines in Ohio, copper mines in 
Montana, iron mines in the Lake Superior region, 
lake steamers; also real estate in New York, Chi- 
cago. Buffalo, and several other cities. In the 
Standard Oil subsidiary companies alone he is said 
to be a larger owner than in Standard Oil itself; 
at least his holdings have a larger value than those 
in the parent company. He is reputed to control 
vast railway systems, to own every oil car in the 
land, to possess 20,000 miles of oil tubing, 200 
Bteamers, and 70,000 delivery waggons. He employs 
25,000 men, and as a financier, an employer, and a 
power in the world, he kncrws no rival." 

Lord Kelvin as He Appears to a 

On his recent visit to the United Slates, Lord 
Kelvin was enthusiastically welcomed by scien- 
tific workers wherever he weni;, and especially by 
the electrical engineers, among whom he is the 
acknovdedged dean. 

To show the great Scotchman as he is seen by 
his disciples and his co-workers is the purpose of a 
hrief article contributed to the " Engineering Maga- 

zine " for June by Professor Francis B. Crocker, 
who is himself a leader in the industrial and com- 
mercial development of electricity on this side of 
the Atlantic. 

A Rare Combination— Pure Science and 
" Common Sense." 

Professor Crocker considers the part played by 
Lord Kelvin in connection with the laying of the 
Atlantic cable as his strongest claim to high rank 
in the history of science and engineering. H» 
says: — 

" No other feat accomplished by human powers 
appeals more forcibly to the layman as well as to- 
the specialist. Not only were mathematical know- 
ledge and ability of the highest order required to- 
solve the problems involved in this great under- 
taking; co-ordinated with these faculties the- 
greatest possible degree of common sense and prac- 
tical faculties were equally necessary. It Is ordi- 
n*rily supposed that these two phases of mind are- 
opposed to each other, the dsvelopment of one hav- 
ing a tendency to dwarf or diminish the other. In 
Lord Kelvin's case the two are combined, and each 
is of the very highest order. It is in this particular 
respect that he is undoubtedly the greatest man of 
any time. On the purely scientific side, Helmholtx 
and other nam€s might be mentioned as his equals; 
a number of electrical engineers and inventors, not- 
ably Edison, have accomplished more individually 
in the way of actual mechanical achievement than 
he has; but no one else has done so much in both 
directions at the same time, and done it so well, aa 
he. In abstract science, his mathematical invea- 
ligations in mechanics, heat, electricity, and mag- 
netism are classical, and will always remain funda- 
mental in the progress of human knowledge. The- 
numerous pieces of working apparatus Invented 
by him will certainly remain prominent for a long; 
time to come, if not perpetually. For example, the 
principles of his reflecting galvanometer, ampere- 
balance, electrometers, siphon recorder, marine 
compass, and deep-sea sounding apparatus would 
seem to be so general that they would always ba^ 
useful — in fact, necessary — even though improve- 
ments in construction and operation might be de- 
vised in the course of time. And the mere listing^ 
of their names suggests the breadth of the range 
of Lord Kelvin's accomplishments in the domain- 
of applied science. 

An Attractive Personality. 
" In the case of men of genius, personal qualities; 
often detract from their intellectual achievements, 
and seriously interfere with their popularity; but in 
Lord Kelvin's case the reverse is true to a remark- 
able degree. Anyone who has ever heard him speak 
in public has been at once impressed and charmec^ 

Kkvikw ok lli:viKw.-<, 
JvhY 20, 19U-J. 



by his mental and personal qualities. He combines 
the intellect of a great philosopher with the 
straightforwardness and simplicity of a schoolboy. 
He takes his audience into his confidence, and 
thinka aloud without the slightest affeciation or 
self-consciousness. He regards the great things 
that he has accomplished as matters of fact, and 
accepts the credit and praise that is given to him 
without the least embarrassment or protest. When 
he speaks of his own work the language is most 
modest, and it is characteristic of him to name 
in the same breath others whom he credits with 
having contributed as much as, or more than, he 
has. There is no artfulness in this manner of re- 
ferring to his great deeds; it is a natural — in fact, 
an unconscious — expression of his fairness and 
broad-mindedness. Another characteristic feature 
of his modesty is his habit of asking numerous 
questions of anyone he meets, whether it be i 
learned scientist or a common workman — and his 
manner of addressing the one is as good-natured, 
polite, and interested as when he speaks to the 

Holiday Schools and Playgrounds. 

Mr. Henry S. Curtis contributes to " Harper " 
for June a suggestive paper, describing what has 
been done, especially in New York and Massachu- 
setts, to provide holiday playgrounds and holiday 
instruction for the children of the streets. Holi- 
day schools and playgrounds, he says, are in many 
ways the highest point of the educational system 
to-day. They are striving for the highest ideals. 
His account of the work that has been done in this 
direction bj' the New York Society for improving 
the condition of the poor, ought to stimulate people 
in the large towns in Great Britain to follow so 
admirable an example. Under this society there 
are in New York forty-six public-school play- 
grounds, fifteen swimming-baths, six recreation 
piers, five out-of-doors gymnasia, and ten evening 
play centres, besides several outdoor playgrounds 
and ten Kindergartens. Nearly 1,000 teachers 
are employed. 

In Greater New York last year there were twenty- 
eight holiday schools situated in the districts where 
the population was densest. The sessions begin at 
nine o'clock and close at twelve. They are so 
popular that the children clamour to be allowed to 
come in. In the holiday school their books are 
dispensed with. The girls are taught to make 
dolls' dresses — the dolls are furnished by the 
Bchools, and the girls make six sorts of dresses for 
each. They are also taught to make and trim hats, 
and to make up dresses for themselves. In other 
rooms girls are taught to wash and dress babies. 

of which t.-ere is an inexhaustible supply, whilr 
yet again others are trained as nurses and cooks. 

The boys are taught to cane chairs, to make- 
baskets and toys, to do ironwork, fret-sawing, etc. 
The playgrounds in New York are usually under' 
the schoolhouse, for the noise is so great that the 
iirst floor of the school building cannot be used 
for school purposes. The playgrouna work is- 
divided into four departments — gyninastics, ath-- 
letics, Kindergarten, and library. Nearly every 
playground has two instructors in gymnastics for' 
girls and two for boys. They have dumbbell 
drills, wand drills, fancy marching and dances. 
There are rooms for quiet games, and a number of 
Kindergarten rings. In the free swimming-baths, 
thousands of children are taught to swim. 

The Men of the ^' Times/' 

The "Caxton Magazine" for May has an illus- 
trated article on "The Men of the 'Times,' " by Mr. 
J. C. Woollan. The three chiefs of the "Times" 
who are dealt with are Mr. Walter, Mr. G. E. 
Buckle, and Mr. Moberley Bell. Mr. Buckle has 
been editor of the paper for no less than eighteen 
years, having been only twenty-nine years old 
when called to the editorial chair in 1884. Mr. 
Woollan says that he was chosen chiefly because 

Mr. G. E. Buckle. 

(Editor of the Times.) 



July 20, ipo2. 

he had large mental gifts which had been highly 
cultivated, and had, moreover, most excellent talent 
for expressing himself in good English. Mr. 
Buckle's enthusiasms are golf and privacy, the 
latter being no doubt the reason why he is so little 
known in the general world. The other strong 
man behind the "Times" is Mr. Moberley Bell, 
who is officially described as assistant-manager, 
but whose position is a very different one. Mr. 
Bell was formerly " Times " correspondent in 
Egypt, having inherited that post from his father. 
Mr. Bell has been described as the " De Blowitz 
of Egypt," and he has been credited with being 
the original author of the British occupation. 
Judging from what Mr. Woollan says, the "Times" 
is by no means under the control of old Tories. 
Mr. Moberley Bell is a Liberal-Unionist, while Mr. 
Buckle is a member of the Reform Club, which 
fact is given as "a hint as to his personal politics." 

only because the common people were indifferent. 
But all this is being changed, and the movement 
is now a popular one. 

The Russian Awakening. 

Mr. Felix Volkhovsky contributes to the " Con- 
temporary Review " an article under this heading. 
The greater part of his paper is taken up with the 
disturbances in the towns and villages, but he 
deals at length also with the alleged refusal of 
the soldiers to fire on the people — a refusal which 
he regards as the chief fac-tor in the Russian anti- 
Oovernmental movement. He says that as soon 
as the rumours of the coming demonstration of 
March 3 fl6) spread In St. Petersburg the 
officers of the Cossack Bodyguard Regiment, 
headed by their commander, made a declaration 
to the Home Secretary that in case their regiment 
should be ordered to put down the demonstrators 
they would obey in conformity with the military 
law, but would afterwards resign their positions Jn 
a body. 

Mr. Volkhovsky also says that twenty-eight 
soldiers were arrested in Poltava for refusing to 
fire on the peasants, and that an officer is being 
court-martialled for having ordered every tenth 
rifle to be loaded. The troops in general regarded 
their employment on what was strictly police duty 
as a degradation. Mr. Volkhovsky declares that in 
rhe Rusrsian array there is none of the haughty 
military bully of Pru.ssian manufacture, and the 
military insubordination is therefore a new im- 
petus to the awakening of the citizen and Chris- 
tian within the soldier. 

Mr. Volkhovsky maintains that the anti-Govern- 
mental propaganda has at j-ost made progress 
among the peasantry. Large quantities of revolu- 
tionary literature had been smuggled into Russia 
and circulated anij^ng the peasants. The past 
Tviberalising movements of Russia were ineffective 

In Praise of the Chinese. 

By Prince Ukhtoaisky. 

Prince Ukhtomsky contributes to the " Con- 
temporary Review " an article on " The Genius of 
China," which is enough to make us all weep that 
we were not born Chinese. Prince Ukhtomsky 
has been in China many times, and has fallen in 
love with the Yellow Man. He believes in him 
down to the ground, and in this article he ventures 
to prophesy various things which, when they hap- 
pen, will occasion disturbances in the world at 

The Expansion of China. 

China is something so immense and potent that 
it is impossible to foresee to what it may grow 
within a few decades. It is certain that the cur- 
rent of modern life will drag China into its strenu- 
ous whirlpool, will stir up and stimulate the natu- 
rally good-natured giant to demand a proportionate 
share of power, glory and wealth, of success and 
weight in the assembly of nations. Already the 
Yellow Race begins to struggle with difficult 
problems, and in the Twentieth Century, whatever 
it may cost, China will acquire as natural colonies 
Annam, Cochin-China, with Cambodia, Siam, and 
Burmah, the great Malay regions, Formosa, the 
Philippines, Borneo, Sumatra, and Java. Who- 
ever rules China, will certainly in time acquire 
a formidable fleet, and then the struggle for exist- 
ence will follow its course with pitiless logic. The 
Chinese have energy, sagacity, and capital. Until 
the year 1400 China kept a whole generation ahead 
of Europe. Since then she has fallen behind, per- 
haps some thirty years. But she is waking up. 
There are no signs whatever of decline or decrepi- 
tude. Unable to repel the invading foreign devils, 
they have made themselves indispensable to the 
newcomers, and managed In a certain sense to 
bind them hand and foot. Already being unrivalled 
in the field of commercial resourcefulness, the 
Chinese little by little crowd out the foreigners 
from their territory, and the time can hardly be 
far distant when all the import and even the ex- 
port trade will be in the hands of Chinamen, whose 
diligence is exemplary, and who rapidly learn and 
master every industry. The day must surely come 
when America, England, Sweden, and Germany will 
cease to be necessary to China, grown aware of her 
own boundless resources. 

A Philosophy of History. 
Prince Ukhtomsky maintains that the Russians 
alone of all foreign nations are regarded by the 

Rkview or Kevikws, 
July 20, 1902. 



Chinese as their friends. He quotes a story told 
by the Russian poet, Maikoff, which tells how he 
once asked the Kirghiz Sultan Vailkhanoff what 
was his philosophy of history. He answered, " God 
Almighty gave the sovereignty of the earth to my 
ancestor, Jenghis Khan. For our sins it has been 
taken away from his descendants and given to 
the White Tsar. That is my philosophy of his- 
tory." It is not quite clear, however, whether the 
White Tsar means the Son of Heaven or the Rus- 
sian Tsar. It is possible that Prince Ukhtomsky 
may expect that the Russian Tsar will become the 
ruler of China, and so acquire a double right to 
the title of the Son of Heaven, which included the 
idea of White Prince and White Tsar. 

Russia as China's Saviour. 
The Prince says Western Europe has broken a 
terrible breach in the Great Wall of China, spiritu- 
ally considered: — 

Who and what can save China from fallinsr entirely 
under the foreigTi yoke? We believe Russia alone can. 
From Russia's example the Western peoples will learn 
to understand and value an active faith, which gives 
peace not less than Buddhism with its assuagement of 
the rebellious will, and at the same time brings the glad- 
dening dawn of man's regeneration. This is the key of 
our unique success, unparalleled in history in subjecting 
kingdom after kingdom not merely by open hostility 
and military achievement, but also by the secret powers 
of emotional sympathy and the irresistible necessity 
ucder which we lie of finding in every intelligent crea- 
ture of whatever face, of whatever race, a comrade 
and brother with equal rights before God and the Tsar. 

He dreads the possibility of Great Britain con- 
verting the Yellow Man into a Sepoy, and he de- 
clares boldly that the chief problem of Russia in 
the Yellow East is to guard against such possibili- 

Chinese Virtues. 

Leaving the political question of the future re- 
lations of China to the Great Powers, Prince 
Ukhtomskj'- waxes eloquent in praise of the 
Chinese. He denies indignantly that they are in- 
different to religion and believe in nothing. The 
veneration of departed parents and ancestors, the 
recognition of the existence of their forefathers as 
living spirits who are able to enter into communi- 
cation with their descendants, takes the place of 
religion. They see the presence and activity of 
spirits in everything. There is not a kingdom in 
the world where learning is so highly esteemed and 
reverenced as in China. Every scrap of paper 
marked with hieroglyphics is honoured by the 
Chinese. A Chinaman is ready to study with in- 
credible industry up to any age, overcoming the 
greatest obstacles. The respect of the people and 
of the authorities to those who have shown special 
assiduity and intelligence is extended also to their 

parents for having given birth to sons so useful to 
their country. The Chinese administration con- 
sists of an incredibly small number of pei-sons of 
at all important rank. For the whole colossal 
Empire there are only 9,000. The representative 
of power temporarily appointed is to such an ex- 
tent identified with the population entrusted to his 
charge that he has sometimes to suffer a heavy 
penalty for crimes committed within the region 
entrusted to him, and he is repeatedly fined for the 
misdoings of others. He is guilty before the Son 
of Heaven for floods, droughts, famines, fires, and 
other natural calamities. 

Japan's Financial System. 

By Count Matstjkata. 

Nobody in Japan is more fitted to write on the 
financial side of this, the youngest of the great 
nations, than Count Matsukata, who for long occu- 
pied the post of Minister of Finance, ana who still 
morally controls the doings of the Finance Depart- 
ment. To him largely Japan owes, first, the re- 
demption of her depreciated paper money, and, sec- 
ond, the adoption of the gold standard. 

In the article which Count Matsukata contributes 
to the " North American Review " he reviews the 
principal points of the financial development of the 
nation. When first the country was restored to 
the direct Imperial rule, finance might be said 
to be non-existent. Each feudal lord and each 
clan had had their own methods of raising income 
from their own land, and the Shogunate itself, 
although the central Government had depended 
upon the revenue from its own properties, and not 
from any system of taxation, spread over the whole 
country. Even such dues as were paid were ren- 
dered in the produce of the land, seldom in cur- 
rency. The principal standard for the value of 
land was the number of kokus of rice it could pro- 
duce, and pressure was brought to bear upon land- 
owners to make all their land into rice fields, since 
of them it was easy to estimate and collect dues. 

Thus the restored Government had to face the 
fact that with organised expenditure it had no 
organised or stable revenue. The first step was 
the giving up by the feudal lords of their lands to 
the Government, for which they were indemnified 
with Government bonds. This land became the 
property of the holders formerly in feudal subjec- 
tion to their lords. Once rid of the feudal system, 
with the land in the hands of the people, a land 
tax was levied by the Central Government, and 
with this begins the real financial progress of 



July 20, Ip92. 

Japan. This tax was not fully in force until 1881, 
although the reform was proposed in 1869. This 
long delay was caused by the necessity for an 
official assessment of land throughout the coun- 
try. Count Matsukata points out, with some par- 
donable pride, that Japan accomplished a very com- 
plete cadastral survey in a few years, while several 
European countries have not yet completed or 
even attempted such a task; one European coun- 
try, indeed, failed to accomplish it, after working 
at it for forty-three years. 

This official valuation of the land was revised in 
1899, so that Japan has at present a cadastre of very 
tolerable perfection. The land tax was in 1877 
2^ per cent, of its legal value, and remained so 
until it was raised after the war with China. 
Even then in 1899 this tax was raised to 3.3 per 
cent. The value of the produce of the land had, 
however, risen so much as to treble the original 
value of the land; thus the tax on land is now 
only 1 per cent, of its real value. In 1881 the 
land tax produced practically all the revenue, 
42,000,000 yen out of 60,000,000 yen. It was. how- 
ever, found necessary to impose indirect taxation; 
the income tax had been enacted in 1887. The 
principal of the indirect taxes is that on .s«/.-(', 
the generic name of intoxicating liquors. This 
tax now supplies the greatest sum to the revenue, 
and has been raised on several occasions. 

The Japanese Government have ever been 
anxious to tax luxuries so that they may lighten 
the burden on necessities. In the budget for 
1901 this tax was responsible for 55 milliou 
yen out of a total revenue of 207 millions. Before 
the war with China the sake tax stood at 4 yen 
per koku (about 8s, per 39.7 gallons), but in 1901 
it had risen to 15 yen per koku. In 1901 also a 
tax of 7 yen per koku was imposed upon beer! 

In 1896 a business tax was added to the direct 
national taxes, principally in order to counteract 
to some extent the preponderance of the agricul- 
tural element among the electors, for in Japan the 
payment of a certain amount of direct national 
taxes is one of the qualificaticms for an elector of 
the Lower House. The introduction of this tax is 
a sign of the commercial and industrial develop- 
ment of the country. 

And yet, with all the taxes, new and old, the 
Japanese people are but lightly taxed. In 1901 
the average rate per capita was 5.10 yen (10s. 2d.), 
of which 3.65 yen (7s. 7%d.) were national taxes. 

In concluding, the Count combats the idea that 
the recent increase in Japan's expenditure has 
endangered the basis of national finances. While 
stating that the expenditure, which was 80 millions 
before the war, is 275 millions in the Budget of 
1901, he contends that this increase is not out 
of proportion to the growth of national wealth, 

and that " the greater part of the revenue accrues 
from sources such as were either non-existent or 
quite insignificant at the beginning of the present 
era." He also calls attention to the fact that 
while the expenditure in 1900 is eight times that in 
1868, the volume of foreign trade has multiplied 
fifteenfold in the same period. 

Woman and Her Sphere. 

Ey thk Duchess of Sctheslani*. 

The Duchess of Sutherland contributes to the 
" North American Review " for May a dithyram- 
bic but brightly-written dissertation concerning 
" Woman and Her Sphere." She takes as her text, 
" I have been ready to believe that we have even 
now a new Revelation, and the name of its Messiah 
is woman " — a quotation from Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, which is in a somewhat more highlj 
pitched key than the rest of the article, although 
the Duchess discourses very prettily and eloquently 
concerning her sex. 

The scientific spirit, she says, being asked why 

women are women and for what, answers for 

motherhood, motherhood of prophets and kings, 

motherhood of men: — 

As mother, woman rocks the cradle of all civilisation, 
she sets the commandment of all histories. Like a star 
upon her brow she carries the notable momenr of the 
beginning. Science, however, passes beyond the pas- 
sionate sentiment of this truth. To cieate harmony, to 
establish a scheme of justice, slowly. >s tne mission of 
science. Therefore woman must have chance.s of mental 
growth equal to those of man, and her position must be 
in harmony with the ideal social state. 

The Duchess shakes her head at the scramble 
of some venturesome female souls on the ladder 
of intellectual and political ascent, partly, it would 
seem, because of their shapeless shirt-waists. The 
enlightened man was at first shocked, a few years 
ago, to find at his side, instead of pretty creatures 
who had only the pleasing attraction of a play- 
thing, a host of women claiming, in calm delibera- 
tion, equality of brain, muscle, and opportunity 
with himself; but he has borne the shock well, 
and has discovered that after all there is little 
difference in the relative importance of man and 
woman to the community. The highest purpose 
in life, she declares, is to establish a true comrade- 
ship between the sexes, and development is so slow 
that only a portion of the race have learned this 
secret of existence. Women are not meant to be 
fanatics, but rather to make fanatics of men — 
which is an unkind saying, although there is some 
truth in it. 

The Duchess declares that a male mob brings to 
the onlooker a flush upon the cheek and a quick- 
ened throb to the pulse, but " a mass of women 


July 20, 1902. 



moved to enthusiasm or frenzy by the same circum- 
stances awakens no feeling but regret. Without 
her frame or environment, woman, as the unset 
diamond, fails to impress." Women, she thinks, 
are at present somewhat retarding things for them- 
selves and all the world by lack of discipline. 
Emancipation has brought to some a sudden in- 
toxication which is gravely unbalancing, and causes 
them to overlook the fact that, after being released 
from petty restraints, they ought to govern them- 
selves: — 

In fairness, it must be granted that a woman, in spite 
■of her avowed liberty, starts life under a disadvantage. 
8he is harassed by trifles and conventionalities that a 
man escapes. . . . She dare not beg the leisure a 
man commands, and is accorded solitude grudgingly, her 
very security of self becoming insecure. 

Then the Duchess suddenly surprises us by de- 
claring that " the natural powers of the average 
female mind are certainly equal, if not superior, 
to the average man's." Woman, however, must 
wait before she can realise herself, wait for fuller 
growth and more self-knowledge. A glorious ad- 
dition to the sum of life, she says, will be the 
emancipated woman with a sense of humour. 
Women have to train themselves, both mentally 
and physically, in order that their children may 
have the full and perfect life. 

" The serious part of the whole question is, that 
for many working women in the middle and lower 
classes emancipation is still so spurious an affair." 
The freedom of the middle-class women employed 
as clerks, telegraphists, and teachers is little bet- 
ter than authorised slavery. In the lower classes 
the untrained mind of the working-class woman 
■cannot grasp the meaning of the companionship her 
husband needs. Her intellectual statui-e is still 
appallingly low: — 

One is haunted by the fear that, till women in the 
upper strata of society are united in letting their best 
influence filter through to the strata of varying grades 
below them, there is little gain for the sex as a whole. 
As things are at present, the aspect of our manufac- 
turing cities, with their women's and child's labour, is 
no pleasing one. 

The Pan-Germanic Movement. 

Lovers of national unity will read with great 
pleasure the main facts presented by Sir Rowland 
Blennerhassett in the *' National Review," under 
the heading, " The Pan-Germanic Idea." The anti- 
British feeling which the writer reports, and the 
anti-German feeling which he is at no pains to 
conceal, may be dismissed as the small dust of 
the balance. The great point disclosed is that the 
movement for the unification of the German 
Fatherland and of all who speak the German 
tongue, still goes marching along; the glorious 
drama, of which Sedan and Versailles were only 
preliminary acts, still further unfolds itself. 

In 1892 appeared a little book called " Ein 
Deutsches Weltreich " (a German World-Empire), 
calling en all branches of the German race to 
work for political union. In 1894 was formed, in 
consequence, the Pan-Germanic League. In 1895 
it had 7,700 adherents. Now it has 200 centres of 
propaganda. The map which is published in the 
" National " shows the nature of its aims. It is 
a map of the Great German Confederation of 1950. 
The Empire so formed is to comprise all Austria 
and Hungary except Galicia and the Bukowina; 
Trieste, Austrian Tyrol, German Switzerland, Hol- 
land and Belgium, and s ^ece of Northern France. 
The eastern frontier shows only slight changes. 
The absorption of Holland is openly discussed in 
German newspapers generally. The Swiss Ger- 
mans have obscured their local patriotism with 
the " larger patriotism " of race and language. The 
movement " Los von Rom " is described by the 
writer as but another phase of the Pan-Germanic 

The writer laments that we have not a single 
Cabinet Minister who' can read German with ease, 
and that consequently we do not understand the 
bitter enmity which Germans feel towards Eng- 
land. He insists that " Delenda est Britannia " 
is the watchword of Pan-Germanism, and pleads 
that we prepare by suitable alliances, of which 
the Japanese is to him a welcome earnest, to worst 
Pan-German plana for the " annihilation " of Eng- 

Those of us who thrill with the hope of the unity 
of the English-speaking world would De churls 
indeed did we grudge our Teutonic kin a like 
enthusiasm for the. ur-ity of the German world. 

French Remounts. 

In the " Nouvelle Revue " a French officer deals 
exhaustively with the whole question of remounts, 
but if what he says is true, France, face to face 
with a sudden emergency, would find herself in 
even worse case than did the British army some 
two and a half years ago. 

The writer begins by stating what he considers 
obvious facts. Firstly, that a riding horse must 
be at least six years old before it can be used as a 
charger. Now this used to be recognised by the 
French military authorities, and those in charge of 
the Remount Department were not allowed to pur- 
chase animaTs which were less than five years old. 
At the present time there seems a theory that 
remounts ought to spend some time in the army 
before being actually put on active service. Ac- 
cordingly, quite young horses are bought, and if 
convenient they spend two to three years on the 
Government stud farms, but, orf course, if there 



July 20, 1Q02. 

is any dearch of remounts, they are pressed into 
service long before they are fit for it. 

The French army purchases 12,000 chargers each 
year, each horse costing £40, but — and to this the 
writer takes great exception — nearly as much again 
Is allowed for " preliminary expenses." In the 
British army, says the writer, the officers at least 
are well mounted, for they purchase their own 
horses. The French officer is too poor to follow 
this example; he takes what is given to him, and 
the result is deplorable; the younger officers being 
often put off with ver>' inferior animals, because they 
ride better than do the rank and file, while superior 
officers are provided with large showy mounts, on 
which they can make a good effect on ceremonial 
occasions, but which would be no good on active 

The great Napoleon realised the part played by 
horses in war, and arranged that the full marke: 
price should be paid for every cavalry horse in 
his immense army. Now, however, the French mili- 
tary authorities are compelled to purchase the most 
inferior class of animal. 

The Need for a Zollverein. 

Mr. Edward Salmon, writing on " The Business 
of Empire " in the " Fortnightly Review," is might- 
ily delighted with Mr. Rhodes' political will. 
" How great a loss Cecil Rhodes is to the Empire 
has been realised more clearly as the documents 
he has left behind have been understood." Cecil 
Rhodes — should he not rather have said McKinley? 
— was for war against all who boycott British 
goods. What Rhodes grasped intuitively others 
have to be educated up to. This process of educa- 
tion, Mr. Salmon thinks, is going on apace. The 
Imperial Zollverein idea has swept along at a great 
pace since the Ottawa Conference. Mr. Salmon 
laments, however, what he regards as the defection 
of Sir Wilfrid Laurier from the sound principle. 
For although, in 1897, he seemed to be tne leading 
advocate of closer customs union, he has since 
succeeded in confusing the whole issue by suggest- 
ing that the commercial union of the Empire will 
be best accomplished by Free Trade to the whole 
world. If a customs union does not become a 
fact within a very few years, prejudice, ignorance, 
and superstition must account for the failure. 
He thinks that the preferential tariff adopted by 
Canada has been justified by results. Canadian 
imports from Great Britain, which amounted to 
68,000,000 dols. in 1873, had sunk to 29,000,000 dols. 
in 1S97. In 1901, after three years of preference, 
they had risen to 43,000,000 dols. In a footnote, 
however, he admits that there is some falling off of 
:hese figures in the latest Canadian returns. Mr. 
Salmon thinks that the fate of the Imperial Federa- 

tion movement hangs on the decision taken with 
regard to tariffs. An imperial customs union 
would send to the Colonies so much new business 
as to make it to their immediate interest, by as- 
sisting in the upbuilding and mainienauce of a 
really Imperial army and navy, to insure against 
th.e foreign enmity which startled Lord Rosebery. 
There will be sore disappointment throughout the 
Empire if some considerable step forward is not 
the aftermath of the Coronation. 

Mr. Birchenough, in the " Nineteenth Century," 
replies to Sir Robert Giffen's paper in the May num- 
ber. He complains that Sir Robert Giffen con- 
founds two general policies. The policy which 
Sir Robert Giffen condemns is an agreement be- 
tween the Colonies and the mother country, where- 
by each party pledges itself to tax certain foreign 
articles for the benefit of the other party. Mr. 
Birchenough says that that is not the policy of 
moderate and responsible men. The principle they 
contend for is simply this, that in the application 
of the existing tariffs or the tariffs for the time 
being of the mother country and of the Colonies, 
there shall always be a reduction or differentiation, 
in each other's favour, the amount of such reduc- 
tion being, of course, fixed by agreement. In the 
one case you have an actively Protectionist mea- 
sure — an aggressive policy towards foreign coun- 
tries. The other is merely a declaration that the 
members of a united Empire grant each other 
privileges which they do not extend to foreigners, 
and this movement is unmistakably a step towards 
Free Trade within the Empire. Hitnerto the 
main difficulty that has stood in the way of prefer- 
ential arrangements is the absence of a quid pro 

Protection for Imperial Defence. 

Colonel Denison, writing upon Canada and the 
Imperial Conference, gives away Mr. Birchenough's 
case by formulating a demand that a special duty 
of 5 to 10 per cent, should be imposed at every 
port in the British possessions on all foreign 
goods, the proceeds to be devoted to imperial de- 
fence. If this proposal, or something or the same 
kind, is arranged for in the coming Conference, it 
will enable the defences everywhere to be greatly 
increased. The Colonies can provide a defence 
fund if a war tax is levied all round the Empire. 
They will be content to pay in that way, and they 
might not be willing to do it in any other. If 
no agreement can be arrived at, and the Conference 
ends in a deadlock, the effect in the self-governing 
Colonies will be disastrous; disintegrating influ- 
ences might arise, and the Imperialists in Canada 
would have no arguments left to meet the attacks 
of the disloyal, or the renewal of the attempt to 
involve Canada in commercial union with the 
United States. 

Bbview ok Ubvikws, 
July 20. 1902. 



Steps Towaeds a Unified EiiPifiK. 

Lord Strathcona contributes to the " Empire 
Review " a paper entitled " Stepping-stones to Close 
Union," which is not very incisive, on the subject 
of the Zollverein. He thinks that an arrangement 
is possible which will place England's commercial 
relations with her Colonies on a more friendly — 
or, should we say, a family? — footing. He does not 
like the word Colonies, which signifies a position 
of dependence and tutelage. They are, rather, 
partners, not yet predominant partners, in the 
great alliance or combination known as the British 
Empire. He urges that more attention should be 
given in schools to the study of the history, geogra- 
phy, and resources of Greater Britain. There should 
be greater cohesion between the military forces in 
the Colonies and those at home, and more should 
be done to develop the Colonial Navy. 

As to the policy of the Empire, Lord Strathcona 
tells us frankly that we are approaching a period 
when all parts of the Empire will want to have 
a voice in the imperial foreign policy, and in other 
subjects affecting the well-being of the community 
in general. " How it is to be done I am not pre- 
pared to say." He thinks that a good deal may 
be done in the way of facilitating intercommuni- 
cation by penny post, British cables, and lines of 

The Polish Problem in Prussia. 

Fkoii a Gebman Point ov View. 

Mr. Wolf von Schierbrand, who for deven years 
acted as chief correspondent in Berlin for the 
Associated Press of the United States, contributes 
to the " FoTum ' for May an interesting paper on 
" The Polish Problem in Prussia." Mr. von 
Schierbrand says that Posen, or the Prussian 
section of the Polish x^mgdom, although the most 
prospercms, as well as intellectually the most 
advanced, is the place where the Polish national 
spirit is now most vigorously asserting itself. 
Galicia, economically and intellectually considered, 
is far behind the Polish provinces of Prussia. This 
is also true in a still higher degree of Russian Po- 

So far as the material development of Polish pro- 
vinces goes, Prussia deserves unsitinted praise. In 
th« first fifteen years that elapsed after their con- 
quest by Frederick the Great, the population in- 
creased nearly 50 per cent., but the greatest eco- 
nomic development dates from the year 1863. In 
the last forty years the wealth of the Polish sec- 
tions of Prussia has quadrupled. The nobles 
have become thrifty, and a sturdy and fairly pros- 
perous middle class has risen up. Polish mer- 
chants, bankers, shopKeepers, mechanics, artisans, 

physicians^ lawyers, and engineers are now in the^ 
majority. Dr. von Miquel drew up a programme 
binding the State to an annual expenditure of 
a million sterling in erecting new and substantial 
ochool-Huiises, public libraries, museums, and build- 
ings for higher institutions of learning. The 
percentage of Poles who study at German univer- 
sities has increased ten-fold since 1880. 

The chief political diflaculties of the Prussian 
Government in the Polish provinces date from Bis- 
marck's ill-advised Kulturkampf. Bismarck wa» 
beaten by the Pope, but his surrender did not undo 
the mischief that he wrought. Since then the 
Polish religious hatred of Protestant Prussia had 
been intensified; and five or six years ago tB» 
present Kaiser and the Prussian Cabinet decided 
upon a more energetic policy towards the Poles. 
The Polish leaders have written articles and mad© 
speeches which proclaim, in a far more definite 
fashion than the Dutch of South Africa ever pro- 
claimed their aspirations for a united Africander- 
dom, their ambition to reconstitute a great Poland, 
whicn would stretch from the Baltic to the Black 
Sea, and contain a population of 35,000,000, of whom 
sixty per cent, could neither read nor write. 

This ideal is being steadily fostered by the Prus- 
sian Poles, who have thirteen delegates in the 
Prussian Diet and in the German Reichstag. They 
have powerful allies in the Ultramontane Party, 
which through the clergy offers a resolute resist- 
ance to every attempt to Germanise the Poles. The 
Polish clergy have succeeded in persuading their 
countrymen to abandon the constant use of means 
to become a renegade, an enemy to the race, and a 
hireling to the foreigner. In obedience to this 
idea many Poles have voluntarily shut themselves 
out of every career which would force them to 
make habitual use of German as their vernacular. 
The whole, however, would be powerless against 
the will of the Throne were it not for the fecun- 
dity of the Polish cradle. 

The Poles form a majority in four Prussian pro- 
vinces, and other Polish districts where formerly 
the German element dominated are being gradually 
brought under Polish infiuences. When a Pole 
marries a German, the children are Poles. The 
Polish birth-rate is higher than the German, and 
those persons who have been discoursing so glibly 
concerning the normally high death-rate of Boer 
children in South Africa will be interested in know- 
ing that one reason why the attempt to Prussianise 
the Poles has failed is because the hygienic rules 
strictly enforced by the Germans lead directly to 
an increase in the numbers of the Poles. It will 
also interest them to know that the scheme of 
German colonisation to which Prince Bismarck 
succeeded in devoting five millions sterling', for the 
purpose of honeycombing the whole country by the 



July 20, ipo2. 

isettlement of German colonists in Polish districts, 
has been a total failure. Desirable German colo- 
nists will not settle in the midst of a Polish neigh- 
bourhood, and if Germans do buy Polish land, they 
are boycotted and worried into quitting the neigh- 
bourhood. Prussia is at her wits' end in the matter. 
The problem is the most serious which the Prus- 
jsian Monarchy has to face. 

The Shipping Combine. 

Can Foueigneks Own British Ships ': 

The " Nineteenth Century " publishes two articles 
..on the Shipping Combine, the first of which is by 
Mr. Edward Robertson, M.P. He raises the point 
whether the principle of the Merchant Shipping 
Act should not be applied to corporations, as well 
as individuals. According to the Merchant Ship- 
ping Act no ship above a certain tonnage is allowed 
to fly the British flag unless she is entirely British 
owned. But the fact of this provision is nullified 
;iy a clause which permits ownership to be acquired 
by corporate bodies established under, and subject 
to, the laws of some part of His Majesty's do- 

By the machinery of incorporation the avowed 
policy of the Merchant Shipping Act, and that of 
excluding aliens from the ownership of British 
ships, is destroyed. Lord Justice Lindley has 
ruled that there is nothing to prevent an alien 
not an enemy from holding shares in a company, 
.and it has been decided by the Law Courts that a 
ship may be registered in the name of a company, 
although some of its members are aliens. Mr. 
Robertson is of opinion that a ship may be so 
registered, though all the members are foreigners, 
or all the shares are held by a single foreigner 
or foreign company. If the ship is not owned by 
a company, every one of its sixty- four shares must 
be in the ownership of a British subject, born or 
naturalised. The Naturalisation Act of 1870 de- 
clares that nothing in this Act shall qualify an 
alien to be the owner of a British ship. But if 
the ship is owned by a company with a capital 
divided into sixty-four shares, or any other number, 
any one or more, or apparently all of these shares 
may be owned by foreigners or by a foreign cor- 

Mr. Robertson is of opinion that the power given 
by the Merchant Shipping Act to all corporations 
under British law to own British shipping, though 
foreigners may be shareholders, is in contradiction 
to the general principle of the Act, and ought to be 
restricted. The governing idea should be that the 
ownership in vessels which the lav/ disallows to 
individual foreigners should not be made possible 
'to them through the medium of shareholding. 

Com Laws or Navigation Laws. 
Mr. H. P. E. Childers, writing upon the Naviga- 
tion Laws, gives an interesting historical sketch 
of English legislation on the subject. He quotes 
Von Ranke, who says that the Navigation Act of 
1651, of all the Acts ever passed in Parliament, 
was perhaps the one which brought about the most 
important results for England and the world. He 
also reminds us that in 1849 Sir James Graham, 
in supporting the measure repealing the Navigation 
Laws, made a statement in debate to the effect that 
there were two courses open, either to go back to 
the Corn Laws, with a differentiation in favour of 
Canadian corn, or to repeal the Navigation Laws, 
otherwise the loss of Canada was inevitable. Mr. 
Childers says that nothing remains of the Naviga- 
tion Laws excepting the necessity for registration, 
and the qualification for ownership; and the law 
should be preserved in the spirit as well as in the 
letter. In order to fly the British flag a ship should 
be entirely British-owned. By such a regulation 
the wholesale absorption of our ships would be pre- 
vented. Mr. Childers says the position of a ship 
is exceptional. A ship carrying the English flag 
in neutral or foreign waters may bring about com- 
plications for which the Empire, as a whole, 
may be answerable, and such ship may have been 
heavily subsidised by our Government, while en- 
tirely owned by foreigners. Therefore we must 
keep British ownership intact. The flag of Eng- 
land ought not to be abused, nor the provisions of 
the Merchant Shipping Act furtively overridden. 

" Animal Par^asites " is the somewhat " creepy '' 
title of Mr. John J. Ward's paper in " Good Words." 
on " Minute Marvels of Nature." His gruesome 
portraits include parasites of the tortoise, the &heep, 
the pig, the ostrich, the crow, the pigeon, the owl, 
the stickleback, the pole-cat, the bat, and the 
housefly, as well as of the human animal. The 
pigeon-louse is mentioned as a parasite which is 
a benefactor. It is said to thin the bird's plumage 
as the weather grows hot. 

Writing in the " Strand Magazine " for June on 
" The Humorous Artists of Australasia," Mr. Thos. 
E. Curtis says justly that Australasian caricaturists 
are allowed a licence which would not be tolerated 
in England or America. Many cartoons and cari- 
catures undeniably tend to be " broad." He pays 
special attention to Mr. Livingstone Hopkins 
("Hop" of the " Bulletin "); but a number of other 
"Bulletin" artists are criticised. Indeed, this paper 
has the lion's share of his attention; the " New Zea- 
land Graphic " and " Auckland Observer " cari- 
catures are also admired. Indeed, on the whole, 
Mr. Curtis thinks Australasian caricature dis- 
tinctly clever and original. 

Review op KEVjh.we, 
JuLT 20, 1902. 



The Amazing Mr. Seddon. 

A Charactee Sketch. 

" I seem ro see Mr. Seddon now," writes Miss 
Constance A. Barnicoat, who, five years ago, lived 
within a stone's throw of the ugly square wooden 
building in Wellington which was dignified by 
the name of " The Ministerial Residence." " I 
seem to see Mr. Seddon now walking backwards 
and forwards from the House — a broad, thick-set, 
short-necked, burly figure, with a tall hat (in a 
place where men rarely wear such headgear), and 
a black frock-coat flying in the wind. His face is 
kindly, with strongly marked features, deeply fur- 
rowed brow, and shrewd blue eyes — a material- 
istic face, and one betraying immense force, not 
the face of a man likely to worry aDout trifles. 
He is generally supposed to be a plain, fi-ank, 
hearty sort of man, who would knock you down but 
not trip you up. Knocking down he certainly has 
done, and does still; and as for tripping up, a close 
observer of Colonial politics would hardly like to 
say whether Mr. Seddon ever misses a chance of 
tripping up an enemy if he can get it." 

In the opinion of this former neighbour of his, 
Mr. Seddon is one of the first three Colonial states- 
men in the Empii'e, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and Mr. 
Reid being ihe other two. 

His rise has been very rapid. In 1891 he was 
little known, even in New Zealand, but, to the as- 
tonishmen: of all and the dismay of many, on Mr. 
Ballance's death, in 1893, he became Premier, and 
has remained so ever since. 

It is a mistake to imagine that all the social 
and economic experiments which have made New 
Zealand famous originated with Mr. Seddon. 
"When the experimental legislation for which he 
is not responsible is subtracted from the sum lotal, 
only a moderate amount remains for which he 
can be either praised or blamed." Mr. Reeves, 
Mr. McKenzie, and Sir Joseph Ward have all more 
to do with the distinctive, social, and agrarian 
legislation of New Zealand than " Dick " Seddon, 
as he is familiarly known by those in the Colony 
who can never forget that, twenty-five years ago 
he lived the knock-about, hail-fellow-well-met life 
of a Colonial mining-camp, nipping and shouting 
with the miners, among whom he first made his 
debui in public life as the keeper of a public-house. 
He was born in St. Helens, Lancashire, and was the 
son of a schoolmaster. His mother was a good 
Primitive Methodist, whose virtues are commem- 
orated in a memorial tablet in the local Sunday- 
school. He entered Parliament when thirty-four 
years of age. and soon made his mark. The 
only Ministerial portfolio which he held before 
being Premier was that of Minister of Mines. 

According to Miss Barnicoat he is the uncrowned 
Kang, or rather Kaiser, of New Zealand. As a 
legislator he is responsible for the Shipping and 
Seaman's Act, for the Old Age Pensions Act, which 
came into force in 1901, and the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Act. 

In the financial crisis of 1896 he saved the Bank 
of New Zealand from having to shut its doOrs by 
a couple of guarantees at £2,000,000 each. 

Mr. Seddon is an astute, cool-headed, profoundly 
calculating politician, who, despite all his defects, 
has established his popularity in the Colony on 
such firm foundations that it is almost impossible 
to conceive of any Government in New Zealand of 
which Mr. Seddon is not the head. 

After the War. 

Some Pju'.ssino Qckstioxs of South Afbk a. 

In the " Fortnightly Review " Sir Alexander 
Miller, writing upon " The Labour Problem in 
South Africa," pleads for the introauction of 
Hindoo labour, of which the supply is practically 
inexhaustible, but he warns us that this cannot be 
done upon one-sided terms. He says the adminis- 
tration ought on no account to make itself respon- 
sible, directly or indirectly, for the supply of 
labour, but whatever steps can be taken short of 
violence or physical restraint to lead, drive, or 
push the natives into habits of industry and order 
ought to be adopted boldly and carried out un- 
flinchingly, even though some of the measures may 
conflict with the unrestricted liberty so dear to 
the Anglo-Saxon. 

How to Tax the Mines. 
Mr. W. Bleloch calculates that the profits of the 
gold mines will average nine millions sterling per 
annum. At 10 per cent, this would yield £900,000 
per annum, at 15 per cent. £1,350,000. For the 
second period of ten years the profits would rise 
to £16,000,000 a year, 10 per cent, of which would 
give £1,600,000. Mr. Bleloch is strongly of opinion 
that the tax should be a variable one, a changing 
percentage rising and falling with the require- 
ments of the Government. He quotes figures to 
prove that there is little or no foundation for the 
cry that the 10 per cent, tax would bear hardly on 
the mines, provided, of course, that 5s. a ton can 
be saved upon the working costs. This, he thinks, 
is pi'obable. In five years' time he calculates that, 
even after the 15 per cent, tax is paid, it is prob- 
able that the mines will be making two millions 
a year more than under the old system. 

Indispensable Conditions. 
Dr. M. J. Farrelly, writing in "Macmillan's Maga- 
zine " for June on "Our Hold on South Africa 



July ^0, 1(^02. 

after the War," declares that State-organise-d 
British emigration on a large scale, the universal 
arming of civilians, and the federation of South 
Africa are indispensable if our hold on South 
Africa is to be secured. Dr. Farrelly's judgment 
is not very good, as may be imagined from the fact 
that he insists upon the necessity of establishing 
BngFish as the sole official language in a country 
in which we have pledged ourselves to ^ve equal 
rights to the Dutch. But he is quite certain that 
on our hold on South Africa depends the existence 
of the Empire itself. Any weakening of our hold 
would be followed by the secession of Janada to 
the United States, and the independence of fede- 
rated Australia and New Zealand. 

American Captains of Industry, 

The " Cosmopolitan " announces a series of brief 
sketches of all the great American captains of 
industry, of whatever kind, and in the May number 
this series begins. It includes very readable 
pen-pictures by C. S. Gleed, Lewis Nixon. James 
Creelman, and others, of the following person- 
alities: — J. Pierpont Morgan, Thomas A. Edison, 
John Wanamaker, C. H. Cramp, John W. Mackay, 
Alexander Graham Bell, James Gordon Bennett, 
W. R. Hearst, Joseph Pulitzer, and A. A. Pope, of 
bicycle fame. 

James Gordon Bennett, of the " N.Y. Herald." 
Mr. Creelman, who contributes the sketch of 
Mr. Bennett, considers him " to-day not only the 
most commanding figure in journalism, but also the 
most cosmopolitan type of man to be found any- 
where in the world." A quarter of a century of 
T'aris life, not of exactly an ascetic or recluse 
order, has never prevented him from attending to 
ever}' detail of what Mr. Creelman calls " the most 
prosperous and, in many respects, the most sub- 
stantial and seriously enterprising newspaper in 
America." He is a •' second John Walter," of 
the '"Times;" but while Mr. Walter was only a 
journalist, Mr. Bennett is famous as a traveller, 
yachtsman, marksman, whip, epicure, and man of 

It is not a very pleasing picture which Mr. Creel- 
man paints of this sexagenarian bon viveur and 
bachelor — this " American Prince Hal with a hun- 
dred FalstafEs in his train ": — 

He is ov turns intensely proud and humbly self- 
condemnatory; royally generous and penurlously sav- 
ing; trustful and jealously suspicious; now displayins 
the most delicate tact and consideration to all v.-ho are 
about him, and now breaking out into moods of harsh 

His one ambition is to make the " New York 
Herald " a kind of headless and undying republic. 
on which his death shall have no effect. Bennett 
is the " Herald " and the " Herald " is Bennett. 

W. R. Hearst, of the *• New York Journal." 
Mr. Arthur Brisbane, writing of Mr. Hearst, says 
that his one main idea is public influence, exer- 
cised through the simultaneous efforts of news- 
papers all over the States. He chose for his efforts 
the three most difficult cities, and began with the 
werst of the three. He calculated on a circulation 
of 150,000 daily (for the " Chicago i.\merican ") 
at the end of a year, and in five weeks the circula- 
tion 225,000. Mr. Brisbane says: — 

W. R. Hearst's success varies from that of the aver- 
age successful man, and e?peoially from the average 
successful editor, in one important respect. He has 
succeeded in spite of wealth. He is not the onlj- rich 
American who tried to be an editor, but he is the only 
one who did not niake a failure of it. 

Mr. Hearst has no idea of being contented with 
his three enormous newspapers. He is only thirty- 
eight, and he has mapped out for himself far more 
work to do than that already done: — 

He considers that the American race and the Ameri- 
can Government are the ablest and most honourable, 
and feels that we should not ieave to England or Ger- 
manj- or any other power any parts of the earth's 
surface which can be properly brought under our own 

Hearst's objects in editing newspapers are big objects. 
He drawB together every day and every Sunday the 
greatest audience that has ever listened regularly to 
any one man in the history of the world. His three 
Sunday newspapers combined are taken in fifteen hun- 
dred thousand American homes. 

It is because so many hundred fhousand of his 
readers believe that the '■ Journal," " American," 
and " Examiner" work for their interests taat Mr. 
Hearst is a powerful and important man. He 
realises the possibilities which might be his who 
could talk to ten millions or more of his fellow 

Joseph Pulitzer, of the " New York World." 
Mr. Arthur Brisbane also contributes a sketch 
of Mr. Joseph Pulitzer, of the "New York World." 
When Pulitzer, a youth of seventeen, landed in New 
York from Hungary, he was not only penniless, 
but could speak nothing but German and Hun- 
garian. In the war of the Secession he was only 
saved from being court-martialled by being a good 
chess player. An old general thirsting for a game 
of chess heard Pulitzer could play well, had him 
taken out of prison, and was so amazed 
at his mental powers that the court- 
martial was quietly dropped. Many vicis- 
situdefl had he to go through before he 
established the " St. Louis Post," still the most 
successful paper in Missouri. At thirty-six, with 
a national reputation, he saw and took the chance 
of buying the " New York World," and establishing 
a " real newspaper " where at the time none existed. 
But to Mr. Pulitzer's success there is this great 
drawback — he is nearly blind of one eye and quite 
blind of the other. Success has made him far more 

Rkvibw op KBViKwa, 
JULV 20, 1902. 



conservative — too much so, thinks his critic. On 
the whole, however, his influence is and has been 
for good. 

A Benevolent Despotism in South 

Dr. Richard T, Ely describes, in the June number 
of "Harper's Magazine," what he calls "An Ameri- 
can Industrial Experiment." This experiment is 
the organisation of an industrial community of 
6,000 inhabitants at Pelzer, in South Carolina, in 
which the power of the employer is carried to its 
maximum. The Pelzer Company has four cotton 
mills and 2,800 employes. The company owns all 
the land, all the houses, and nearly all the build- 
ings in. the place. The town is absolutely a piece 
of private property, and the owners have all those 
rights which arise out of the nature of private 
property. '" No one may remain in Pelzer, save 
with the consent of the owners of Pelzer, any more 
than they can remain in our drawmg-room or our 
office excepting with our consent." Everyone 
who is allowed to inhabit Pelzer must sign an 
agreement, the first clause of which promises that 
every child and member of the family between the 
ages of five and twelve shall attend school every 
school day during the ten months of school session, 
unless prevented by sickness or unavoidaDle causes. 

Captain Ellison A. Smyth is the despot of Pelzer. 
He is a ruler whose rights, being co-extensive with 
those given by private property, go far beyond 
mere political authority. No municipal elections 
are held, everything is done for the people by the 
benevolent autocrat who employs them. The 
Captain is devoted to education, and has forced it 
upon the people, very much against their will, for 
when Pelzer was started 75 per cent, of the popula- 
tion could neither read nor write. The percentage 
is now, after eighteen years, reduced to 15 or 20 
per cent. He provides an excellent lyceum, with a 
good library and reading-room, where entertain- 
ing and instructive lectures are given from time to 
time. Provision is made for recreation and ath- 
letics. No drink is allowed to be sold in the vil- 
lage; the town is pleasantly situated on the River 
Saluda. The company allows freedom to the 
shopkeeper. There are no central stores. The 
working day averages eleven hours. There is a 
good savings bank in the place, w^liich Dr. Ely 
notes with especial approval. After recently tra- 
velling 8,000 or 9,000 miles through the United 
States, having constantly in mind the question. 
" What is the greatest present economic need?" 
he says:— 

I am inclined to hold that no one measure would do 
more to cultivate the economic virtues and to promote 
the economic welfare of the people of the United States 
than postal savings banE^s; but they do not now exist. 

Irrigation in Australia. 

The " Geographical Magazine " for May pub- 
lishes a very interesting paper on the arcesiaa 
water supply of Australia by Mr. Gibbons Cox. 
This paper was read before the Royal Geographical 
Society early in the year, and was discussed after 
delivery by Lord Lamington, Sir Thomas Fowell 
Buxton, Dr. Mill and others. Mr. Cox has been 
professionally engaged in boring artesian wells 
in Queensland, and his report is favourable. He 
thinks that a very large part of Australia is nothing 
more than a roof orer a great subterranean reser- 
voir which has been accumulating since Creation. 
Every year twenty inches of water falls on this 
roof, and for the most part evaporates or drains 
away. But a great portion of it Is intercepted 
by the outcropping porous artesian rocks, whicn 
are so saturated with moisture as to practically 
constitute an inexhaustible supply of water. 

Queensland's Artesian Wells. 
In Queensland at present there are 532 artesian 
wells, bored to an average depth of 1,197 feet, at 
an average cost of twenty-five shillings a foot. 
That is to say, nearly £800,000 has been spent 
in sinking wells which yield 351 million gallons per 
day. Linfortunately, the artesian water under the 
Western Australian goldfields is nothing like so 
vast in quantity as that which underlies Queens- 
land. The porous artesian rocks of Australia 
Mr. Cox diinks have a far greater capacity for 
absorbing and retaining rain water thau the chalk 
formation under London. 

The Gardens of the Sahara. 
Mr. Cox gives some interesting particulars as to 
:he extent to which artesian wells have been used 
lor the conversion of desert into gardens. More 
:han 300,000 square miles of the Sahara have been 
transformed into arable land by artesian wells. 
Since 1857 fourteen million acres have been re- 
claimed from the desert by this means. About 
two-thirds of the area of Queensland, or 445,000 
square miles, overlie this vast storage reservoir 
of artesian water. In some places water comes 
up quite hot, in one well the temperature being at 
one hundred degrees. 

Australia's Future Rivers. 
Lord Lamington maintains, in opposition to 
Mr. Cox, that in almost every case bore water, 
after two or three years, deposits a sediment harm- 
ful for agricultural purposes. Cattle and sheep 
will drink it, but it is sometimes not too palatable 
to human beings. Although Western Australia 
is not so well supplied as Queensland, nevertheless 
its calcareous sand-rock, known as ^olian sand- 
stone, contains a good deal of water, and at Perth 



July 20, ipo2. 

a well sunk in the railway yard has produced a 
fine flow of splendid water at a depth of 700 feet. Mr. 
Cox thinks that it is extremely likely that the 
northern district, which has a very bad name for 
dryness, would yield artesian water in almost any 
part. He believes, contrary to some critics who have 
doubts on the subject, that the supply of under- 
ground water is quite inexhaustible, and it is pos- 
sible that sufficient water might be tapped by a 
great increase of artesian springs in Australia, to 
provide permanent rivers and creeks in the interior 
from which irrigation might be carried out. 

The Need for Irrigation. 
The great need of some such system of irriga- 
tion is sufficiently attested by the statistics of 
mortality of livestock during great droughts. In 
the twelve months ending 1900, despite all the ar- 
tesian wells in operation, nearly 5,000,000 sheep 
perished in Queensland, or 32 per cent, of the en- 
tire number. In 1892 there were 22,000,000 sheep 
in Queensland; at the end of 1900 the number had 
sunk to 10,500,000. In New Zealand at the end 
of 1891 there were 61,000,000 sheep; at the end of 
1899 the number had fallen to 39,000,000. 

Life and Death. 

It is difficult to imagine an article on the tre- 
mendous problems of life and death in an English 
review, but the French are extremely fond of such 
articles. M. Dastre's paper in the first May num- 
ber of the •' Revue des Deux Mondes " is a good ex- 
ample of its type. He begins by denying flatly 
that science has thrown any real light on the mys- 
teries of life and death, while philosophy offers us 
merely hypotheses — the old ones — thirty years, a 
hundred years, and even two thousand years old. 
In biology — to return to science — there are three 
main systems by which it is attempted to explain 
the vital phenomena — in fact, the various biolo- 
gists may be divided into animists, vitalists, and 

Of course, it must not be supposed that science 
has made no progress. The neo-animists of to- 
day have travelled some distance from Aristotle, 
St. Thomas, or Stahl; so, too, Darwin and Hauckel 
have developed the modified ideas of Descartes. In 
M. Dastre's opinion the most striking change has 
been that theories have ceased to tyrannise over 
scientific research. At the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century the science of vital phenomena had 
not progressed in the same manner as the other 
natural sciences, but remained to a large extent 
wrapt in the scholastic fog. Vital force was re- 
garded as a capricious thimg, which acted arbi- 
trarily in a healthy body, and still more arbiti'arily 
in a sick one. 

Then came the revolution which separated the 
sphere of experimental science from that of philo- 
sophical interpretation. As M. Dastre says. Lud- 
wig and Claude Bernard drove out of the domain 
of experimental science these three chimeras — 
vital force, the final cause, and the caprice of liv- 
ing nature. Physiologj- found its limits in a per- 
ception that the living being is not merely an 
organism completely constituted, such as a clock, 
for example, but it is a piece of machinery which 
constructs itself and perpetuates itself, and is thus 
distinguished from anything of the kind in in- 
animate nature. The true field of physiology 
was thus found to be the study orf those phenomena 
by which the organism constructs and perpetuates 

America's Public Untidiness. 

The " Forum " for May contains more self-de- 
preciatory criticism. Professor Hamlin maintains 
that the Americans are the most slovenly and un- 
tidy people in the world in their public Eiffairs. 
He says that there is more filth and squalor in 
public places, streets, squares, river-sides, docks, 
quays, and bridges in the United States than in 
any other part of the world. America ranks with 
Turkey in this respect: — 

Our national slovenliness is seen in dirty streets and 
unsightly water fronts; in ill-kept squares, ragged side- 
walks, and abominable pavements; in shabby railway- 
stations and embankment walls built up of rotting sleep- 
ers; and in a thousand shiftless substitutes for solid 
permanent works. The unspeakable countrv roads 
r,-hich abound in so many regions not only iilustrat* 
the existence, but also demonstrate the folly of this semi- 
barbarous slackness of administration. 

A visitor to New York sees all this as his first 
impression of the New World. He lands at a 
decrepit wooden wharf, covered by a cheap shed 
of timber and sheet iron. The well-kept elegance 
of the streets of Paris, Berlin, Vienna, is excep- 
tional in America; and so on. The psychology of 
this Mr. Hamlin explains as follows: In the rapid 
gi-owth of American civilisation, to get things done, 
however badly, was better than not to get them 
done at all. It was more important to build 100 
miles of bad roads than ten miles of good ones. 
And so in railways, docks, and Warehouses, the 
.Ajnericans worked rapidly and adopted makeshifts. 
This has now become a habit of American enter- 
prise, and the result is that in the appearance of 
their towns and cities the Americans make a very 
bad show. 

The " Sunday At Home " for June is beautified 
with a frontispiece in colours reproduced from Sir 
John Millais' famous picture, " The Highlander's 

Rbviiw of Kbvihvs 
JULT so, 1902. 



The China War of J 90 1. 

In " La Revue " for May, a volunteer, M. Jacques 
Grandin, whose picturesquely written and illus- 
trated journal of his doings in the China War of 
1901 Is published in two long articles, throws a 
curious and somewhat sinister light on French 
doings in China. The interest of the articles is 
considerable, but chiefly unconscious. M. Grandin 
throws a curious light on che French army, which 
pens its soldiers up for twenty days in Marseilles, 
with a minimum of comfort, without even beds to 
sleep in, and which made them do dockers' work — 
there being a dock strike — and then failed to pay 
them for it. The other striking fea*^'>>"e in this 
journal is the utter callousness witix which the 
writer describes the turning of Chinese corpses out 
of their coffins, and burning the latter for fuel: 
the looting of the smaller villages and bringing 
the plunder to some of their officers, and being sent 
out apparently to hunt for young and pretty Chi- 
nese girls for the said officers, much as if they had 
been commissioned to look for fresh vegetables for 
them: — 

We had lighted a fir , a corner of a village, . . . 
some of the houses were \a flames, and we were ransack- 
ing the others. In one ant I and my mates were lucky 
enough to lay hands on a beautuui young girl. They 
tried violence on her, but the mother snatched her 
from our brutahties. dragged her to the far end of 
the burning village, and threw herself into the flames 
T\-ith her. 

Orders were to enter all villages, and raze to the 
ground those offering or likely to offer resistance. 
Chinese and their carts were requisitioned every- 
where when wanted, and, as pay, obtained the re- 
mains of the French soldiers' meals. Those who 
rebelled they beat; those who fled were well kicked 
and finally shot. And yet we are told the Chinese 
preferred the French to many other nationalities. 

Incidentally, it also appears how exceedingly 
strained were the relations between the French 
and English contingents, and what ado the officers 
had to keep even a show of outward peace. 

A Ccntury^s Loss in Gambling. 

" Money Lost by Gambling " is the title of a 

paper by Mr, W. Greenwood in the " Sunday 

Strand," which, with its illustrations by Will R. 

Robinson, the Anti-Gambling Society would do 

well to reprint as a tract and circulate broadcast. 

It resumes the tragedy of the turf, as enacted in 

the lives of plungers like the notorious Marquis of 

Hastings, who lost the weight of two racehorses 

in gold in a single race, but builds chiefly on the 

estimate given in the following paragraph: — 

It is, for obvious reasons, impossible to arrive at the 
exact amount of money squandered in betting every 
year; but not long before his death, it waa stated oa 
the authority of Mr. Mulhall, the most famous of lat- 

ter-day statisticians, that during the last hundred years 
no less a sum than £3,000.000,000 had been won and 
lost on the Turf and at the card-table; and there are 
many well-qualified judges who would say that this i» 
rather an underestimate than an exaggeration; 

This total is estimated to equal in weight 66,000 
racehorses. It would, if portioned out among our 
army in South Africa, give^ them each a load of 2 
cwt. of gold. It would require ten strong loco- 
motives to pull. "A century's betting money would 
form a rectangular column of sovereigns, 10 ft. 
square, and more than twice as high as St. Paul's 
Cathedral." We could pave with sovereigns the 
365 acres of Battersea and Finsbury parks. In- 
vested, the sum would have yielded £90,000,000 a 
year. And so on. The calculations and illustra- 
tions are ingenious and suggestive. 

The King as a Leader of Society. 

Lieut. -Colonel Newnham-Davis writes brightly 
on this subject in the " Pall Mall " Coronation 
number. He says, after paying high tribute to the 
iving's Hospital Fund: — 

Xo great scientific discovery has been made, no cru- 
sade against disease undertaken, no national explor- 
ing expedition has been sent forth, that the King has 
not shown a keen interest in the work or venture. 
Whether it be listening to Marconi explaining his 
system of telegraphy, or going carefully through the 
plans of a great hospital to be built under his immediate . 
direction, or saying "' God-speed " to the oliicers of 
an Antarctic expedition on the deck of their vessel, 
or presiding at a meeting of the governors of a great 
Institute, the King, during the past forty years, has 
always been on the crest of the oncoming wave of 
science and charity, and to lue men of brains and ener- 
gy*, authors, inventors, explorers, the pioneers of the 
day, lie has shoAvn marked favour. 

The manner of the British gentleman of to-day is 
formed upon the manner of the King when he goes 
amongst his friends — the genial, easy, unaffected bearing 
and speech of a man of the world at Home amidst any 
surroundings. No man has ever been impertinent 
to the King— no man could be. The haughty noble- ^ 
man of the early Victorian era has gone out of date. 
The King has stown that dignity is not hauteur, and 
that a perfect bearing is not obtained by lessons from 
a ■' master of deportment." 

As a society leader, says the writer, the King's 
influence has been distinctly for good. > 

The " Lady's Realm " for June is better than, 
usual, especially the illustrations. Mr. W. G, Fitz- 
gerald describes and illustrates " Church Decora- 
tions at Fashionable Weddings." Some rectors, it 
seems, object to their churches being turned into' 
temporary conservatories, and looking like Cove'nt 
Garden at 8 a.m. There is a very readable papet" 
on " The Coming of Age of the King of Spain,"* 
also one on Lord Rosebery. Another paper is on 
racing women, and there is a not very brilliant 
discussion on the management of husbands. 



July 20, n)02. 


The National Review. 

The June number sti'enuously maintain? the 
anti-German policy of the " Review." The editor 
warns us against the German astuteness which 
would employ the Morganeering shipping deal to 
set Britain against the United States. " Ignotus " 
bewails, under the title of " Another Graceful Con- 
ce-3ion," the permission given to Prince Henry and 
his German squadron lo visit and use British bases 
.in Irish waters. After Count Bulow's insolence to 
■Mr. Chamberlain this courtesy 's, the writer affirms, 
sure to be misunderstooa by Germany. Sir Row- 
land Blennerhassett, as reported elsewhere, sees in 
the rapid extension of the Pan-Germanic idea a 
deadly menace to England. Mr. Maurice Low re- 
ports that in spite of Prince Henry's visit i: is 
always the German navy by which the American 
Navy compares itself. It is a poor set-off against 
this anti-German bitterness to have the concurrent 
policy of Anglo-Russian goodwill furthered only 
by " a forgotten chaper in Anglo-Ru.s-sian rela- 
tions " — the visit of Emperor Nicholas I. to Eng 
land in 1844. It was a personal triumph, but a 
diplomatic " semi-failure." The article is written 
by Serge Tatistcheff, financial agent to the Russian 

The People c. the Trusts. 
This, saj's Mr. Maurice Liow, will be the issue 
in the November elections for the American Con- 
gress. The people are said to be getting tired and 
afraid of the Trusts. President Roosevelt has set 
himself to attack the Trusts, and has consoquently 
become an " unsafe " man. The capitalists of the 
Trusts supply the campaign funds, and already 
they are swearing that Roosevelt shall not have a 
chance in the next Presidential campaign. The 
other side suggest that in the tariff the President 
has a means of bringing the trusts to their knees. 

Octrois or Customs? 
Sir Vincent Caillard replies to Sir Robert Gif- 
ftsn's " Nineteenth Century " argument against 
" tie dream of a British Zollverein." He explains 
tbat what he asks for is, first. Free Trade between 
tEe Colonies and the Mother Country, leaving Free 
Trade among themselves as an after-consideration. 
He would distinguish duties on goods coming from 
other parts of the Empire as octroi duties from the 
customs imposed on foreign goods. The editor 

rests his hope of the conference with Colo- 
nial Ministers resulting in a preferential system 
on Mr. Chamberlain, and Mr. Chamberlain alone. 
He even urges Mr. Chamberlain to leave the Go- 
vernment and set up a new standard rather than 
allow the Colonies to think that Great Britain 
values her shibboleths more than her children. 

Lady Servants. 

Mr."^. Francis Darwin writes on " Lady Servants " 
as the one way left of establishing domestic ser- 
vice on a reasonable and dignified basis. She men- 
tions " The Guild of Dames of the Household," es- 
tablished in 1900. She insists that the arrangement 
by which servants sleep out of the house, possibly 
in boarding-houses set apart for the purpose, is es- 
sential to a right basis of domestic service. 

M. J. Cornely, late editor of the "Figaro," writes 
on the meaning of the French elections. They de- 
monstrated the devotion of Prance to the Republic 
and to M. Waldeck-Rousseau's form of Repub- 

The editor applauds the " Times ' history of the 
war, with its damning disclosures of British in- 
capacity, but is courageous enough to adopt Mr. 
Seddon's views of the peace negotiations that no- 
thing short of unconditional stirrender would be 
acceptable to the Empire. 

The Nineteenth Century. 

The " Nineteenth Century " for June is largely 
devoted to economic problems. The papers on the 
Shipping Combine and the Zollverein problem are 
dealt with elsewhere, 

London University. 

The most Important of the other papers is Mr. 

Sidney Webb's on London University. It is a long 

and elaborate article: — 

What London Univer!-ity -vvaDts is a British " Char- 
lottenburg " — an exteneive and fully equipped institute 
of technology, Avitli special departments for such 
branches as mining and metallurgy, naval architecture 
and marine engineering, railway engineering and hy- 
draulics, electric traction and power-transmission, elec- 
tro-chemistry, optic.*, the various branches of chemical 
technology', and all posible applications of biology. 
Such an institution, which could be begun on any scale 
on the land lying vacant at South Kensinr'ton, should 
admit only graduate students, or others adequately 
qualified, and should lay itself out from the first to be 
a nlace of research in which there would be no teach- 
ing, in the ordinary :jense, but only opportunities for 

Review oc Hbvibws, 
Jr'v 20, lOO-:. 



'earning— for evfry sort of investigation, carried out by 
professors and advanced students, individually and in 

Such an insciune would cost £500,000 to build. 
Mr. Webb adds :hat £250,000 more would be aeeded 
for building and equipping a school of preliminary 
medical science; £:i50,000 more for tbe extension 
and re-equipmen: of University College, and 
£30,000 or £40,000 a year for a great school of lan- 

The Chinese Drama. 

Mr. Archibald Little "has an interesting article 
on the drama in China. The stage in China he 
Bays, is almost exactly identical with the English 
stage ;n Shakespeare's times. There is a total ab- 
sence of scenery. A motto adorns the rear of al- 
most every stage in China with the words, " We 
hold the mirror up to Nature." Actors are appren- 
ticed as children, and many learn their parts with- 
pnt books. JL miark of attention to a distinguished 
visitor is to hand him the repertoire, and ask him 
to choose a play out of some hundred in the list; 
and Mr. Little says tbat he has often selected an 
unpopular and seldom-performed play, and never 
found the test too much for them. Rough indica- 
tions of scenery are given in a primitive way. 
Cavalry are indicated by a whip held in the hand, 
and when dismounting or attempting to ride off 
they go through the action of bestriding a horse. 
Women are forbidden on the stage; and actors, 
with barbers, are the only degraded caste in China, 
their children being inadmissible to the official ex- 
aminations. The Chinese theatre is always educa- 
tive and moral; the denouement is always the 
triumph of virtue. 

England and the Litt'e States. 
Mr. Demetrius Boulger writes on this subject. He 
pves an account of :he proposed union of Holland 
■with Great Britain, which nearly came off crwing to 
Dutch fear of Prussian designs. Bismarck had been 
making speeches about Prussia's need of ports; 
and it was said that he bad prepared an ultimatum 
calling on Holland to come into the North German 
Confederation. Holland, having failed to pro- 
pitiate Prance by the sale of Luxembourg, turned 
to England as Champion against Prussia. King 
William of Holland had then no likely heir, he had 
no thought of marrying a second time, and his 30ns 
were dead or dying. The negotiations for the union 
were carried on by secret channels; and Mr. Boul- 
ger says that one of the points discussed was 
Butch representation in the Imperial Parliament. 
Mr. Boulger has no information as to why these 
secret negotiations broke down. 

Other Articles. 
Captain L. Oppenheim describes the figh: with the 
Doers at RoiteL Mr. W. L. Clowes deals with the 

career of Admiral Edward Vernon, who was dis- 
missed from the Navy in the eighteenth century for 
insubordination. Sir Joshua Ficch deals with the 
Education Bill. Mr. Herbert Paul has a paper on 
George Eliot, written in his usual charming and 
penetrating way. Mr. Paul does not agree with 
Mr. Leslie Stephen that George Eliot could not 
portray male character. In the end of his article 
he compares George Eliot with Tolstoy. " Resur- 
rec:ion," in its breadth and humanity, in the depth 
of its feeling, in the vividness of its satire, and 
in the width of his charity, reminds Mr. Paul of 
George Eliot at her best, the George Eliot of 
" Middlemarch." 

The Contemporary Review, 

We have noticed among the leading articles Mr. 
F. E. Garrett's article on " The Character of Cecil 
Rhodes," Prince Ukhtomsky's '" Genius of China," 
and Mr. Voikhovsky's " Russian Awakening." 
These articles comprise nearly all that is in- 
teresting in the June " Contemporary." 

Women in Agriculture. 

Two papers deal with questions of importance 
concerning agriculture. Mrs. Bertram Tanqueray 
gives a lamentable account of the manners and 
morals of "gangs " of female agricultural labourers. 
She says that the tone of female field workers is 
exceedingly low, their ide^s of morality are small, 
and their speech full of expletives and obscenitiea. 
The Agricultural Gangs Act of 1898 does not ope- 
rate against this state of things, as there is bo 
appointed inspector. The character of the gang 
mistress is no^. always satisfactory, and Mrs. Taa- 
queray argues that an inspector should be em- 
powered to see to this. Work in the fields is ap- 
parently not good even for the health of girls, a« 
Mrs. Tanqueray says that the majority of the girls 
are physically weak, and seldom healthy-looking. 
Colonel Pedder, in another paper, deals with the 
disintegration of country life, and foreshadows the 
time when farming will be carried on by great syn- 

The Growth of Fraud. 

This is the title of one of Mr. Holt Schooling's 
statistical articles. It appears that while all other 
crimes have fallen in number within recent years, 
the various offences which come under the gene- 
ral title of " fraud " have largely increased. In 
1885-1889 there were in England and Wales 85,024 
crimes reported to the police, and in 1895-W tke 
number of crimes bad fallen to 76,860; but whereas 
the number of frauds reported in the first period 
was only 1,879, in the second it had risen to 2.5S9. 
While crime decreased nearly 10 per cent, ftrauds 
increased 38 per cent. Per million inhabitants the 



July 20, IQOJ. 

number of frauds had increased from 67 to 84. Mr. 
Scljooling regards this as a very undesirable phe- 
nomenon, for whereas crimes generally usually in- 
fli^ct injury upon only one person, frauds very often 
iruure or ruin thousands. Another serious phe- 
nomenon is that while the number of frauds in- 
creased, the percentage of persons tried for frauds 
diminished. In 1885-89 54 persons were brought to 
trial for every 100 frauds committed, while in 
1895-99 only 38 persons were brought to trial for 
every 100 frauds. 

The Westminster Review. 

The June number enforces the duty of national 
amendment with sermonic earnestness. " Tory Fi- 
nance Exposed " is a vigorous attack on our 
present Government. The writer contrasts the 
new taxes on " the workers," with the doles, old 
and new, to " the shirkers." and finds that during 
the lasc three years the " balance against workers 
and in favour of shirkers " reached the figure of 
£82,000,000. The favourite specific of levying the 
land tax of 4s. in the pound on present values is 
insisted on"; and with the £4.3.000,000 which would 
be the result a democratic Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer might pay members and election expenses 
(one million), abolish breakfasc-iable duties (five 
millions), give an old age pension of 7s. a week 
to every person over 65 (twenty-five millions), and 
repeal '' Black Michael's " twopence on income lax, 
halfpenny a pound on sugar, and the shilling" a ton 
on exported coal. The writer waxes jubilant over 
the statement that 750,000 persons affiliated to the 
Labour Representation League are paying 3d. a 
quarter, making an annual total of £37,500. 

Mr. Lydston S. M. Newman contributes an elo- 
quent plea for justice to Ireland. Mr. P. Barry 
argues for the development of South Africa, apart 
from the gold mines, by means of liberal outlay of 
credit. Mr. H. H. Smith would encourage the hard- 
working small proprietor, who has been the back- 
bone of the West Indies, as opposed to the insati- 
able large landlord. 

The Engineering Magazine. 

The June number opens with an appreciation of 
Lord Kelvin, by Professor F. B. Crocker. 

Remarkable Inherited Ability. 

'Professor Crocker has had many opportunities of 

observing the methods of the great physicist, and 

has a boundless admiration for him. He says: — ' 

In his case we have an excellent example of inherited 
ability; his father was professor of mathematics in the 
University of Glasgow, where the son subsequently ren- 
dered fifty years of most distinguished service. His 

brother, James Thomson, was professor of engineering 
and mechanics in the same seat of learning— a remark- 
able case of three members of one family occupying 
professorial chairs in the same University, and follow- 
ing closely similar fines of work. . . The part played 
by Lord Kelvin in connection with the laying of the 
Atlantic cable is undoubtedly his strongest claim to 
high rank in the history of science and engineering. No 
other feat accomplished by human powers appeals more 
forcibly to the layman as well as to the speciahst. Not 
only were mathematical knowledge and ability of the 
highest order required to solve the problems involved 
in this great undertaking; co-ordinated with these faw^ul- 
ties the greatest possible degree of common-sense and 
practical faculties were equally necessary. It is or- 
dinarily supposed that these two phases of mind are 
opposed to each other, the development of one having 
a tendency to dwarf or diminish the otner. In Lord 
Kelvin's case the tv.o are combined, and each ia of the 
very highest order. 

Modern Launch Propulsion. 
Mr. E. W. Roberts contributes an interesting 
article upon the employment of vapour, gasoline, 
kerosene and electricity as a means of launch pro- 
pulsion. Any of these is preferable to the old 
steam methods. Mr. Roberts gives an amusing 
account of the troubles of the owner of a small, 
steam launch, for which position he says a suit 
of overalls is the most appropriate uniform. The 
writer describes in full the different systems used 
and illustrates his article with some very good 
photographs of launches, amongst others being the 
electrically driven submarine Holland. 

Coal in England and America. 
Au exceedingly interesting article is that con- 
tributed by A. S. E. Ackermann, comparing coal 
resources and coal getting. He points out the 
enormous difference in the total area of the coal 
fields of America and Great Britain, viz., 222,&0O 
and 9,000 square miles respectively. This, by the 
way. should afford comfort to those who imagine 
that the world's supply of coal is getting exhausted. 
Compared to Great Britain, America has hardly 
worked her coal fields. Other comparisons are 
interesting. In Great Britain, faults are frequent 
and great, and the coal is found in various parta 
at almost all conceivable angles; the seams often 
dip from 12 to 33 per cent In America faults are 
practically unknown, and the greatest dip is about 
5 per cent. In America a shaft of 200 feet is con- 
sidered deep, whilst in England some woritings are 
close on 4.000 feet deep! This, of course, gives e.venr 
advantage to America In the matter of cheap 
haulage. Fire-damp is a frequent source of dan- 
ger in English mines, but does not occur in Ame- 
rica. Partly because of this, electricity can be 
used much more freely in the States. Great 
Britain is, however, very far behind in the use of 
machines in mining. In 1900 only 311 were used, 
whilst in America 3,907 were required. Owing to 
all these advantages, both natural and mechanical, 
the American coal miner turns out 526 tons pet^ 

JVUH 20, 1902. 



mum, compared to the 300 tons of the British. 
Qother cause why American coal is so much 
leaper is "Because the coal companies usually own 
e land abcrve the coal beds, and subsidence does 
•t matter, whereas in England it has to be guarded 
:ainst. Freight in England per ton is just six 
aaes as much per mile as in America! This is 
irtly owing to the fact that British coal trucks 
>ld only six to ten tons each, whereas in America 
e standard is fifty tons. 

The Fortnightly Review. 

The " Fortnightly Review " for June is a good 
Id varied number. The revival of interest in 
mth African matters, which has resulted from the 
^ace negotiations, is indicated by three articles 
laling with South African affairs. The first six 
Lges are allotted to a not very remarkable Coro- 
ition Ode by Mr. James Rhoades, and the num- 
!r ends with Mr. W. L. Courtney's " Undine." 
r. Carl Snyder's paper on " Dr. Loeb's Researches 
»d Discoveries " we have quoted from elsewhere. 

American Wives and English Housekeeping. 
There is a brightly written paper under this 
tie by Mrs. John Lane. Mrs, Lane is severe on the 
ibject of English houses and housekeeping, and 
le finds the belief that it is cheaper to live in 
ngland than in America a delusion. The English 
)inag€, by its divisions and subdivisions, con- 
ices to waste; Ehiglish houses, considering their 
iferiority, are dear, and in England the expense 
! service is greater, more servants being required 
I do the same amount of work. Mrs. Lane de- 
ares that English furniture is dearer and in 
orse taste than American, and that most articles 
' food are dearer in England: — 

How I wish I could clap a big. stolid, conservative, 
ost-bitten English matron into a snug American house, 
ith a furnace, and heaps of closet (cupboard) room, 
id all sorts of bells and lifts and telephones, and 
len force her to tell me the absolute, unvarnished 
nth! What would she say? I know! 

Life in Spain. 

" D " has a paper on Social Life in Spain, a very 

iteresting paper dealing largely with the posi- 

on of women in the Peninsula. His verdict is a 

lixiure of condemnation and approval. The sub- 

(Ction of women exists everywhere In Spain, but 

is accompanied by many advantages: — 

No other country in Europe can offer such a striking 
:ample of the solidarity of relationship, and in none 
her is the love of hearth and , home so marked, 
he devotion in all classes between father and son, 
isband and wife, brother and sister, are among the 
lest traits of the popular character, and recall a time 
hen, prior to the disintegrating process or civilisa- 
an, blood was, in the best sense of the word, thicker 
an water. 

Wireless Telegraphy. 
Mr. Marconi's article upon the practicability of 
wireless telegraphy is a simple narrative of what 
has been done since the first message by aetheric 
wave in wireless telegraphy was sent by Lord 
Kelvin in 1898 down to November 15, 1899. The 
paper, therefore, does not touch in any way upon 
recent controversies as to the alleged telegraphy 
without wires across the Atlantic. 

Other Articles. 
Mr. Arthur Symons writes on the sculptor 
Rodin; Mr. J. P. Hartog contrasts the English 
methods of teaching composition and style with the 
French methods, much to the disparagement of 
the English method; Mr. Joseph Morris writes on 
the dramatist Webster. 

The New Liberal Review. 

The " New Liberal Review " for June is a fairly 
good number, but contains nothing striking. 

The Working Classes in Russia. 

Mr. Brayley Hodgetts has a short article under 
this heading. Mr. Hodgetts does not believe in tha 
enrichment of Russia by industrial development. 
He points out (quite justly) that the money which 
the peasants earn by working in the factories has ■ 
come out of their pockets owing to the Industrie 
being dependent upon State protection. Mr. Hod- 
getts thinks that on the whole the Russian lower 
classes have not improved in morals or manners. 
He says that the factory hands, and in some places 
the peasants, have grown insolent, vicious, prone 
to violence, and addicted to the worst forms of de- 

How to Enrich our Art Galleries. 

Mr. H. D. Lowry makes a novel suggestion. He 
points out that the National Gallery has only £750 
a year for new purchases of pictures, and proposes 
to remedy this by putting a tax on works of art 
exported from this country. A list would be drawn 
up of eminent dead painters whose works would 
be thus taxed. The owners would not suffer, as the 
inclusion of their picture in the list would enhance 
its value. The money realised by the tax would b« 
used for purchasing new works for the nation. 

A Lament Over the Canals. 
Mr. G. Crawley deals with the decay of our Canal 
System. The prosperity of the canals before the 
railway era was so great that the Birmingham 
Canal actually paid cent, per cent. At present some 
of the canals are under the control of the railway 
companies, and others have fallen into disuse. Mr. 
Cawley points out how valuable the cancils might 
be for reducing exorbitant railway rates, and de- 
mands Parliamentary action. 



July .?o, ipoj. 

The Empire Review. 

We must congratulate the editor of the " Empire 
Review " upon the improvement which he con- 
tinues to make in his magazine. The June number 
ifi very brightly writien, up to date and full of 
rariety, both in prase and verse. The editor, in a 
short article on the state of Cape Colony, sounds 
a note of alarm. His paper is a plea for the sus- 
pension of the Cape Constitution. Every penny 
spent by the Cape Government during the last six 
months has beon spent illegally. There has been no 
registration for nearly two years, and by the pro- 
visions of the Coustiuition registration must take 
place once in every two j'ears. By the constitution, 
Parliament should meet within twelve months of 
the last sitting, and it is now eighteen months 
since the Cape Parliamen' sat. Therefore Mr. Kin- 
loch Cooke would legalise the illegal suspensiori 
of the Constitution, believing that thereby he would 
secure the immediate abandonment of martial law, 
and hasten federation. As it is, the Treasurj' must 
be absolutely bankrupt before the end of the year. 
Puhlic business in Capetown, municipal and other- 
wise, is at a standstill. " The proclamation of 
peace will only make confusion worse confounded, 
unless the Imperial Governmeni is prepared to 
place the colony under the direct administration of 
the Ci'own." 

Mr, Villari, writing on Italy's Foreign Policy and 
British Interests, says that the way has been paved 
for the birth of the Triple Alliance, which he has 
now discovered to be compatible with separate ar- 
rangement? on the part of Austria and Italy with 
Russia and France. Germany, however, has the 
strongest interest in the collapse of Austria, which 
is surely a very shortsighted vaew of the situation. 
No objection, however, can be taken to his con- 
fession that everything should be done to promote 
good relations between England and Italy. 

Mr. Button, chairman of the Board of the Colo- 
nial College, pleads in favour of giving youths who 
are to settle in South Africa training at home 
rather than in Africa. 

There are brightly written articles concerning 
" Life in Canada " and in Australia, and also papers 
about India. Lord Strath con a's paper and Mr. Sed- 
don's character sketch are noticed elsewhere. 

The Position of Naval Engineers. 
Lieutenant Carlyon Bellairs, R.N.. has a paper 
on •' The Navy and the Engineers," in which he 
criticises unfavourably the contentions of naval en- 
gineers. The engineer performs mechanical duties 
in which ordinary professional ability qualifies for 
promotion by seniority, while the combatant 
officers, having the entire direction of the ships 
and a power of choice involving judgment, initia- 
tive, and courage to an abnormal extent, have to 
be carefully selected for employment and promo- 
tion. The Navy must be based on the require- 
ments of naval efficiency, and the directive power 
of a fleet cannot be undermined merely because 
the heart of the ship is mechanism: — 

Greater responsibility for the safety of tlu ^liip must 
carry with it enlarged powers, and in all seriousness 
it must be asked — Is this the time to introduce into 
our ships a Royal Navy Corps of Engineers, with the 
titles and none of the essential functions of executive 
officers? Such a di^•ision of the part from the whole 
is known in politics- as an imperiuni in imperio. and in 
a navy we know it well as the dry rot of a fighting force. 

The Truth About Spiun Kop. 
Mr. Basil Worsfold contributes a defence of Gene- 
ral Warren under the title of " The Ti'ue Story of 
Spion Kop," His article is illustrated with a very 
good map. His contention is that the two alle- 
gations against Warren, that he failed to carry out 
Buller's instructions for the turning movement, 
and Lhat he failed to make adequate arrangements 
for providing the force on Spion Kop with re- 
inforcements and supplies, are both unfounded. 
Mr. Worsfold's argiim^nt is too elaborate to be 
summarised here, but he undoubtedly makes out a 
good case for Sir Charles Warren. 

Other Articles. 
"A British Officiars Station Studies " deals with 
the customs of the Bechuanas in a charming man- 
ner, and it is a pleasure to find someone who can 
write sympathetical'y of the South African natives, 
and who does not regard them merely as potential 
mine-labour. There are two poems, one by Mr. 
Newbolt, the other a very short one by Mr. 
Thomas Hardy. The illustrated article this month 
deals with musical instruments in Italian art. It 
is written by Mrs. Kemp- Welch. Mr. M. A. Geroth- 
wohl deals with Maeterlinck's new play, " Monna 
Vanna." Mr. Horace Round writes on the history 
and functions of the office of Lord Great Cham- 

The Monthly Review. 

The " Monthly Review " for June opens with an 
editorial article upon " Profit and Loss on the At- 
lantic Deal." Among the other articles is an in- 
teresting one by Mr. Kershaw on " The Promotion 
of Trade within the Empire." 

" The oldest Anglo-Jewish congregation " is, ac- 
cording to Mr. A. M. Hyamson in the " Sunday at 
Home," that which was established under the 
Commonweal b n a synagogue in King Street, Ald- 
gatc (rebuilt in 1702 1. 

Review or Bbvibvb 
July 20, 190-2. 



Blackwood^s Magazine. 

The June number recognises the grave Import of 
he " Times "' history of the War for our national 
eputation. The writer of " Musings withouc 
dethod " girds at Mr. Carnegie's depreciacion of 
Jniversity education, and observes sardonically 
hat his gif: to rhe Scottish Universities must have 
leen intended to injure the business aptitudes of a 
\iho\e na'ion. The writer laments that " presently 
he American ideal of life will be our own. ' All 
ound people are ringing bells,' once wi'ote a witty 
ritic of New York, ' telephoning, telegraphing, 
tenographing, polygraphing, and generally com- 
Qunicating their ideas about money to their fel- 
ow creatures by any means rather than the voice 
?hieh God put in the larynx for the purpose of 
uiet conversarion.' Before long bondon will tell 
he same tale: and though we are confident tha* 
eaction will follow some day, it is not an agreeable 
nterlude that lies before us." The villain of the 
?hole South African drama, the writer later avers. 
5 Mr. Gladstone, with Mr. Froude next in turpi- 

The Pall Mall Magazine. 

The " Pall Mall Magazine " for June is far the 
est of the Coronation numbers, both in reading 
natter and illustrations. No article on " the Coro- 
ation " will be read with more Interest than rhe 
erse opening paper by Lord Esher, which all who 
annot be in the Abbey might well read on Coro- 
ation Day. For a vivid forecast of the scene 
here has been nothing to approach it. 

Mrs. A. Murray Smith writes of " the Coro- 
ation Service;" the Duke of xVrgyll discusses " the 
!rown as a Symbol;" Mrs. E. T. Cook writes some 
ints for Coronation visitors as to interesting old 
'ity nooks to visit; Mr. Alfred Kinnear has a very 
Qteresting paper on " Some Historic Corona- 
ions;" and Miss Howarth's description of ' Their 
fajesties' Courts." with elaborate illustrations of 
empestuous Court petticoats, is very timely. 

Mr. William Archer has again been conversing, 
his time to Mr. George Alexander. Mr. Edmund 
lobertson discusses " The King in Politics." An- 
ther paper is on Domesday Book, at the Record 
>ffice. Chancery Lane: while Mr. Ian Malcolm de- 
er! bes a visit to Jaipur, whose iilghly intelligent 
faharajah will be one of the most interesting 
Coronation guests, 

Harper's Magazine. 

The June " Harper's " begins with a pleasant 
" literary " ti-avel sketch of " Walter Scott's Land " 
by William Sharp, illustrated charmingly with 
tinted photographs. Mr. Henry S. Curtis wriies 
on ** Vacation Schools and Playgrounds," and 
thinks that of all the important movements in the 
educational lines of recent years the most notice- 
able has been the rapid development of facilities 
for play for the children of the great cities of 
America. The institution of vacation schools was 
founded in Boston by Miss Very, in 1878. The 
movement started in Germany, and now extends all 
over the United States. In New York City alone 
there are forty-six public school playgrounds, six- 
teen vacation schools, fifteen swimming baths, 
six recreation piers, five outdoor gj-mnasiums, ten 
evening play centres, besides several outdoor play- 
grounds and tent kindergarten.^. Basket-ball has 
been found to be much the l>e'?t game for the city 

Paternalism in a Factory Town. 
Dr. Richard T. Ely, in " An Amertcau Industrial 
Experiment," tells of the curiously organised town 
cf Pfizer, .- cotton-milling centre of South Caro- 
lina, which is owned entirely by a corporation. 
" No one may remain in Peizer save »rm the con- 
sent of the owners, just as no one may remain in 
my dooryard in defiance of my commands. The 
lives of six thousand people are in the hands erf a 
modern industrial corporation." Dr. Ely describes 
the efforts of Captain Smyth, the head of the cor- 
poration, to advance the interests of the town 
people physically and mentally. While these 
efforts are energetic and intelligent, ana as elab- 
orate as is consistent with profits in the cotton- 
miiling business. Dr. Ely doubts whether the in- 
evi table democratic forces will allow of permanent 
progress along these paternal lines, although the 
circumstances of the community just emerging 
from primitive conditions are favourable 'n Peizer 
for a larger degree of paternaliem in benevolence 
than would work well in any other part of the 
United States. He calls attention to his prophecy 
in " Harper's Magazine," some fifteen years ago, 
of the obstacles to the success of the Pullman com- 
munity, which has been sc strikingly verified 

The Century. 

" Feasts of Flowers " is the title of a well-illus- 
rated paper in the " Royal Magazine " for June, 
escriptive of Califomian flower revels — like most 
American things, on a gigantic scale. 

Mr. Oscar Browning, in the " Century Magazine " 
for June, gossips concerning the Royal Family of 
England. Mr. H. L. Nelson describeri how laws are 
made at Washington. Mr. B. H. Pickering illus- 
trates canals which are supposed to exist in the 



July 20, igo2. 

jioon by pictures from drawings and photographs, 
Mr. R. S. Baker gives a vivid accoiuit of the desert 
land of the g^reat South-West of America; but the 
two most interesting papers are the copiously illus- 
trated article entitled " Triumphs of American 
Bridge-building," by Mr. F. W. Skinner, and " The 
Great Civic Awakening." 

American Bridge-building. 
Mr. Skinner's article is one which we might ex- 
pect to find more in the " World's Work " than in 
the " Century," but the illustrations alone produce a 
wonderful effect upon the way bridges are built into 
the air. The bridge across the St. Lawrence at 
Quebec will be the longest bridge in the world, 
being 100 feet longer than the span of the Forth 
Bridge. The trusses will rise 300 feet high above 
the tops of the main piers. The bridge will carry 
two railroad tracks, two electric car tracks, and 
two carriage ways, and will cost about £200,000. 

The Preservation of Beauty in Public Places. 

The other article of importance is on what Mr. 
Sylvester Baxter calls " A Great Civic Awakening 
in America," or the organised instruments for the 
creation and preservation of beauty in public places. 
The movement was begun by the local Improve- 
ments Societies, and was carried on by the Ameri- 
can Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. The 
trustees of public reservations in Massachusetts 
and city park associations, and architectural orga- 
nisations have all co-operated in endeavouring to 
make the United States beautiful to dwell in. The 
American Park and Outdoor Arts Association has 
formed a women's auxiliary for the express purpose 
of civic improvement The League for Social Ser- 
vice of New York takes in hand the improvement 
of villages, and has collections of lantern slides, 
photographs, model plans, charts and maps, as well 
as a lecture bureau service, at the disposal of those 
persons who wish to make improvements in village 

Another very interesting article is that describ- 
ing the use of bloodhdunds in America for track- 
ing down fugitives. 

farther east. Land in the North-West has gone 
up greatly in value, and speculation is correspond- 
ingly rife. The cold weather bugDear has been 
dispelled by experience. Since 1887 no ice palace 
could have been erected there, and the winter just 
over has had no equal to the snowstorms which 
almost isolated New York City last February. So 
sustained is the movement North-westward that a 
great overflow has gone into Canada. A Manitoba 
paper estimates the number of settlers this year at 
50,000. Towns and railroads are increasing. New 
methods of farming are being adopted; the status 
of the farmer is improving. A new era is heralded 
in the South-west by Charles Moreau Harger. The 
cattlemen are receding before the homesteaders; 
the large ranches are being broken up; new towns 
are rising; irrigation is advancing; an earnest, 
hard-working element is being added to the popu- 
lation of the West. 

Development of another kind is chronicled by 
Chappell Cory, who sketches six new State consti- 
tutions In the South, by which the attempt is made 
to have an honest suffrage, differentiating openly 
but not too exclusively against the negro, on 
grounds of education and heredity. 

Oxford men will be Interested in Professor F. H. 
Stoddard's paper on Oxford and the American stu- 
dent, written to show how a Rhodes student from 
the States might feel in arriving at the cluster of 
colleges on the Thames. His difficulty in discover- 
ing the University as a sort of intangible invisible 
soul uniting the colleges is amusingly described. 
The aims of Oxford are defined as " cultural " 
rather than " practical." The writer concludes by 
saying that the student may find in Oxford " the 
mental attitude and the moral quality which our 
time most lacks and most needs." He should re- 
turn " if not a profounder scholar, at least a better 
citizen and a truer American." 

There is a short obituary notice of the two Ame- 
rican novelists, Bret Harte and Frank Stockton. 
Mr. McGee's explanation of the West Indian dis- 
aster is cited elsewhere. 

The American Review of Reviews, 

The June number of the " American Monthly 
Review of Reviews " bears ample witness to the 
"filling up" of the great Republic. Mr. Coude 
Hamlin describes ' the new tide of North-Westem 
migration." The first immigrants into Minnesota 
came in waggons. The second phase :;ame with 
the railroad. The present inrush is made up of 
farmers, American-bom and well-to-do, from the 
middle States. The places of these veteran farmers 
are in turn being filled by other veterans from 

Scribner^s Magazine, 

In the June " Scribner's," Mr. W. S. Harwood 
describes the remarkable results from the experi- 
ment-station work as shown in " The New Agri- 
culture." Mr. Harwood tells of typical investi- 
gations of the experiment stations in different 
parts of the United States in the raising of figs, 
oats, cereals, grasses, and vegetables, in dairy 
produ'^ts, and in irrigation problems, and gives 
&3 his opinion that an inestimable money value is 
being added to the farming wealth, actual and po- 

Hkview of Rkvikws, 
JULV 20, 1902. 



tential, of the countrj' each year through the 
agency of this work. 

Errors About the Gulf Stream. 
Mr. H. M. Watts, in " The Gulf Stream Myth and 
the Anti-Cyclone," controverts the present belief 
that the Gulf Stream is the sole cause of the mild 
oceanic climate of western Europe. He says this 
is still taught in the public schools of England 
and the United States, and yet it is absolutely 
without any foundation whatsoever. The essen- 
tial facts are that the Gulf Stream, as an ocean 
current, ceases to exist east of the longitude of 
Cape Race, Newfoundland. It cannot, therefore, 
convey warm weather to the shores of western 
Europe, there to modify the climate. " But. 
above all, climatic causation is not a function of 
ocean currents, but of aerial currents, and the 
mild oceanic climate of western Europe is due to 
the distribution by the permanent aerial circula- 
tion in the whole Atlantic basin of the moderating, 
mitigating effects of the ocean as a whole. This 
permanent circulation takes the form of a great 
cyclone in high latitudes, and of an enormous 
anti-cyclone in mid-latitudes, and to the mid-At- 
lantic anti-cyclone the credit that has been held by 
the Gulf Stream these many yeai-s must be trans- 

There is a readable sketch of fishing life by 
James B. Conolly, "On a Baltic Sea Sloop;" a 
summer article, " The Camera in a Country Lane," 
by Sidney Allan; and a number of short stories, 
together with further instalments of the serial 
novels by F. Hopkinson Smith and Richard Hard- 
ing Davis. 

The World^s Work. 

The " World's Work " for June contains an ex- 
cellent article by Mr. J. H. Hale on " Peaches: A 
National Product." It gives the extraordinary storj- 
of Mr. Hale's own life and his wonderfully suc- 
cessful work in introducing large peach orchards 
in Connecticut and Georgia. A generation ago New 
Jersey, the eastern shore of Maryland, Delaware, 
and a few counties of western Michigan were the 
only centres of commercial peach culture. The 
fruit was marketed roughly, with the good peaches 
all on top of the package, and the season covered 
a period of only a month to six weeks. Now, and 
largely in consequence of the lesson taught by Mr. 
Hale's own success, peaches are extensively grown 
in nearly every section of the United States, except 
in Maine, Vermont, and the north-western States 
beyond the Great Lakes. Georgia, Florida, Cali- 
fornia, or Missouri, any one of them produces more 
peaches in a single season than the entire peach 
regions of America did thirty years ago. The 

peach season extends from M^ay till November, and 
Connecticut to-day is a greater peach-producing 
State than Delaware. 

Mr. Arthur Goodrich's article on "The Future of 
American Shipping " tells of the reasons for Ame- 
rica's weakness in shipping, and the necessities of 
the immediate future. Speaking of Mr. Morgan's 
invasion of England and the shipping merger. Mr. 
Goodrich thinks that if the latter is permanently 
successful, it will mean better organisation and 
service, better and more definite rates, the build- 
ing of a steel groove of transportation around the 
world controlled by a small body of men and 
directed by Americans, and the gradual disappear- 
ance from the ocean of the tramp steamer. He 
thinks, however, it means nothing definite in the 
making of a typical American merchant marine. 

McCIure's Magazine. 

The June " McClure's ' is an excellent number, 
containing as its most prominent features the 
second chapter of Miss Stone's story of her cap- 
tivity; ihe first instalment of Booth TarKington's 
new novel, " The Two Vanrevels;" Mr. John La 
Farge's finely illustrated essay on Rubens: and a 
very dramatic, well-told story of mountain climb- 
ing, " The End of a Great Mountain Climber," 
by Harold Spender. Mr. Spender tells of the ex- 
ploits and of the death on the Dent Blanche of 
Mr. Owen G. Jones, a famous mountain climber. 
The tragedy occurred in August, 1899, and included 
the killing of four out of a party of five. 

" McClure's " publishes, too, this month, Mr. 
Rudyard Kipling's spirited poem on Cecil Rhodes. 

A character sketch of John Hay, by Brooks 
Adams, is highly laudatory. Mr. Adams believes 
that John Hay will always stand in the front rank 
of American statesmen, and calls attention :o the 
fact that only this one American in their whole 
history has been endowed with the poetic tem- 
perament, and has also won considerable distinc- 
tion in practical politics. Mr. Adams thinks that 
few, even of those that are aware of Mr. Hay's 
versatility and ability, comprehend his modesty 
and unselfishness. This writer thinks the Secre- 
tary has risen because he has left himself last. 
" This statement can be tested by facts. At three 
different epochs of his life John Hay has been 
thrown into close relations with three of the 
most remarkable men of diverse types whom 
America has recently produced — Abraham Lincoln, 
Horace Greeley, and Theodore Roosevelt. Not 
one of these three owed anything to him. or could 
look to personal advantage through his support, 
yet all judged him alike." 



Jidy JO, 1^02. 

The Atlantic Monthly. 

The " Atlantic Monthly " for June celebrates che 
first month of summer by opening up the maga- 
zine with an article on " Golf," by William G. 
Brown, who maintains that there were three new 
things In American life at the beginning of the 
twentieth century — empire, trusts, and golf — and 
that any company of reasonably alert and reason- 
ably well-to-do Americans brought together will 
certainly concern itself with one of tnese three 
subjects, which ten years ago would have gone un- 

American Newspapers. 

Mr. Brooke Fisher reports some dismal results 
of an investigation of " The Newspaper Industry" 
as now carried on in the United States. He ands 
nearlj' all the papers conducted for commercial 
ends, and "without sensibility to delicate prompt- 
ings of national honour, without resentment of pal- 
pable social injustice, without any ideal so true to 
It as commercial prosperity." His interpretation 
of so-called " yellow journalism " is mere journal- 
istic vaudeville. " If the purpose of publishing 
newspapers is not co lead, or to teach, or preach, 
or advocate, or champion, but to avoid doing these 
very things, and to draw in the pennies of the un- 
taught and unthinking in order to build up cir- 
culation and advertising, then the frivolous must 
be thoroughly done." He computes the aggregate 
of the capital invested in the periodical business 
as $192,500,000; about $50,006,000 are paid out in 
wages, $50,000,000 for material, and the value of the 
product is stated to be $223,000,000. 

Mr, Remsen Whitehouse writes on '" Austria and 
Pan-Germanism," Irving Babbitt contributes an 
essay on " The Humanities," Charles M. Skinner 
records the advance of the trolley in "The Electric 
Car," and Vida D. Scudder discusses " Democracy 
and Education." 

Everybody's Magazine. 

The June number of " Everybody's Magazine " 
begins with a character sketch of King Edward 
VII., by Chalmers Roberts, with many attractive 
illustrations. Following are various " Stories of 
the King," giving episodes in the earlier and later 
life of King Edward. 

" Everybody's " prints a curious article exploit- 
ing the recent book, by Henry Vignaud, attempt- 
ing to reconstruct the story of the discovery of 
America. This author denies that Columbus was 
the discoverer of America; and publishes a great 
variety of reasons to show that an Andalusian 
sailor, named Sanchez, reached the New World 
some time in the year 1484, being blown out of 
his course. Sanchez and four dying sailors suc- 

ceeded in getting back to the island of Madeira, 
where they were entertained as the guests of Chris- 
topher Columbus, who got the chart of the sailor's 
wanderings from Sanchez just as he was dying. 
According to M. Vignaud, Columbus proceeded to 
make the most of the occasion, and succeeded as 
history has shown. 

Arthur Smedley Greene asks the question, 
•■ Should Christians Buy the Holy Land?" and 
makes a new plea for a crusade based on money 
instead of arms. Mr. Charles H. Dennis, In •"Science 
and Burglary," tells of the new and startling pro- 
cess of cutting iron and steel with a carbon point, 
an invention by which one man can do in two 
hours what would formerly have been a month's 

Lippincott's Magazine, 

In the June " Lippincott's " Mr. John Gilmer 
Speed has an amusing article on '" Tips and Com- 
missions." He says that recently the Queen of 
Italy was shocked to learn that she had been pay- 
ing 100 per cent, more than the regular price for 
her wearing apparel, in order that the servant in 
charge of this branch should get the difference. 
Mr. Speed professes to believe that even clubmen 
in London and Paris accept and expect commis- 
sions when recommending tradesmen to their 
friends. " I have been approached more than once 
by men I have met on the other side, who seemed 
uncommonly anxious to introduce me to their 
tailors, bookmakers, and hatters." Even on the 
vest side of the Atlantic he notes that the practice 
of exacting commissions is taking strong hold. " A 
while ago I sold a horse to a friend. He took a 
fancy to the horse, and finally bought him for 
$400. Next day he came to me with a cheque for 
$425. ' When you send that horse around,' he said, 
' please give that extra $25 to my coachman. I 
don't want him to lame that horse or injure him 
in any way.' " Mr. Speed describes the experience 
of a visitor at an English country house, and thinks 
rhat after a fortnight's visit a visitor cannot well 
get away with honour and self-respect without 
distributing from $15 to $25 among the servants. 

Munsey*s Magazine. 

The opening article in the June " Munsey's " by 
Mr. Douglas Story, on " The Birth of Golf," con- 
tends that golf as a game had its origin in pre- 
historic times, with the clubs and stone axes of 
primitive man; was later domiciled in Scotland, 
and became the sport of kings, and that to-day 
it ranks as the first of games on the six con- 

liitviKW or Rkvi wa, 

JlLY 20, KMJi. 



Under the tide, " The Storj- of the Drift Casks." 
Rear-Admiral George W. Melville, who was a 
member of the famous Jeannette expedition, sug- 
gests that the most feasible route to the Pole 
should be determined by charting the Arctic cur- 
rents by means of drift casks. 3y observing the 
course of these drifting objects, and the time and 
route of their return, Rear-Admiral Melville is 
confident that the most propitious time for reach- 
ing the Pole can be certainly determined. The 
casks used for this purpose are paracolic spindles 
in form, made of heavy oak staves, encompassed 
by iro-n hoops. A coating of black " half stuff," 
pitch and resin mixed, is ^: ">2Ied. In 1898, fifty 
of these casks, with messa&,-u bottles inside, were 
sent by v/halers and revenue cutters into the Arc- 
tic, and started off on their journeys. The scien- 
tists are now awaiting the result. 


■' Saudow's Magazine " for May continues Its ad- 
mirable vocation of supplying information and of 
stimulating ambition sibout physical culture. The 
first paper is by Sandow himself, and deals with 
Artistic Anatomy. It is illustrated with plates 
which give simple instruction on the place of the 
muscles most considered by the trainer. The writer 
laments the too exclusive attention usually paid to 
biceps and triceps, and lays great stress on the need 
for developing the abdominal muscles. He insists 
again that " will-power is the first essential in 
muscular development. It is mind that makes 
muscle." Mr. Edgcumbe Staley supplies an inte- 
resting study on Florentine sculptors and artists 
of the sixteenth century and physical culture, with 
illustrations from Michael Angelo and others. There 
are other stimulating papers on athletics in New 
Zealand and in Scotland, with studies on wrestling 
and cycling. Such a number as this is sure to stir 
the healthy passion of every man and woman who 
reads it for a vigorous, lithe and fully-developed 

The Cosmopolitan. 

The June "Cosmopolitan" contains an interest- 
ing sketch by Mr. Julian Ralph of Mr. John D. 

Mr. William J. Lampton, writing on " The Fas- 
cination of Fast Motion," describes the various re- 
cords Americans are making in yachting, auto- 
mobiliug, horse racing, bicycling, running, jump- 
ing, and tobogganning, and says that this fas- 
cination has brought into being our steamships, 
our telegraphs, our railroads, our telephones, fast 
presses, sewing-machines, typewriters, rapid-firing 
gtms, and a vast variety of time-saving machinery 

in all branches of manufacture. Indeed, he con- 
siders it the inspiration of the whole world's 
material development; because if the world had not 
felt and responded to the fascination of fast mo- 
tion, it would have stood still, and man of to-day 
would yet be pre-historic man. 

Foreign Reviews. 

The Ncmvelle Revue. 

The May numbers of the " Nouvelle Revue " are 
not as interesting as is sometimes the case with 
this publication. Space is given to a curious account 
of v/hat is known as the Virgin Mary's house at 
Ephesus, and of the causes v/hich led to its being 
identified; and a critical account of the French 
Remount Department. We have quoted from the 
latter article elsewhere. 

The Algerian Problem, 
Algiers has always been supposed to be the one 
prosperous French Colony. M. de Pouvourville, 
who has made a special study of France's Colonial 
Empire, views the whole state of things there with 
profound pessimism. He points out that the 
French population of the Colony does not increase, 
and indeed shows a tendency to grow less; while 
the native races, notably the Arabs, become more 
powerful, and are practically untouched by French 
civilisation. The Jew element is taking larger and 
larger proportions, and includes many Jews who, 
while nominally of French nationality, are really 
by birth Levantines, Greeks, Egyptians, and 
Italians. So important a part do the Jews now 
play in Algerian commerce and society that there 
has arisen a powerful anti-Semite party, com- 
posed in a great measure of members of the old 
Colonial families, who were very indignant at a 
law passed in 1870, and which admitted every Jew 
showing a very short residence in Algiers to the 
full privileges of French nationality. 

The Romance of Auguste Comte. 
Positivists will read with mixed feelings M. 
Pascal's very frank account of the curious love 
episode which so powerfully influenced Auguste 
Comte during the whole of the last part of his 
life. Unhappily married to a woman who from 
first to last proved utterly unworthy of him, and 
yet whom he had rescued from a degraded and 
wretched life, he came across, when forty-six 
years of age, the now famous Clothilde De Vaux, 
who, some sixteen years younger than himself, 
lived a life of austere grass widowhood, also the 
victim of a wretched marriage. Till this lady's 
death Comte cherished for her what must be called, 



July 20, 1^02. 

for want of a better name, a platonic passion which 
powerfully influenced his whole views of life, and 
which seemed to increase in feeling after her some- 
what premature death. To this episode, and to the 
influence it exercised o^er his mind, M. Pascal at- 
tributes the curious character of the rules drawn 
up by Comte concerning the marriage of Posi- 

A Republic in Spain? 

Is Spain drifting towards a Republic? Yes, says 
M. de Ricard, and to prove his belief he analyses 
the various forces which are now contending 
against one another under the feeble rule of the 
newly-crowned King. Unlike most foreign critics, 
he is no believer in the Queen Mother, and, in- 
deed, goes so far as to say that at no time during 
ihe last ten years has she known how to flnd a 
solution to any of the difficulties which confront 
the responsible ruler of Spain; on the contrary, 
she has gone on — and so, probably, will her son, 
who is wholly under her influence — much as did 
Napoleon III. during the later years of the Second 
Empire. If this view of the situation is correct, 
the world will probably soon see Alphonso XIII. 
join the already large group of Princes and Prin- 
cesses who are fated to live in exile, and of whom 
the doyenne is his own grandmother, Queen Isa- 

Other articles deal with the joy of mountaineer- 
ing; with Raphael's sojourn in Rome; and with the 
career of the Chinese Emperor, Chi Hoang Ti. 

The Revue des Deux Mondes. 

We have noticed elsewhere M. Dastre's article 
on Life and Death. In addition to this paper the 
most important contribution to the first number 
of the " Revue " deals with German ambitions in 
The East. The anonymous writer regards the in- 
cessant movements of Germanism, its ebb and flow, 
and the transformations of the German power as 
forming in reality the history of Continental 
Europe. Towards the West the rehabilitation of 
Finance, which has followed the war of 1870, is 
rightly regarded as forming a counterpoise to Ger- 
man expansion in that direction. But towards the 
East the domestic difficulties of Austria, the decay 
of the Ottoman Empire, and the feuds of the Danu- 
bian and Balkan nationalities have smoothed the 
path of German activities. In fact, Germanism 
tends more and more to concentrate on the East 
the whole force of its national action, and to re- 
gard the Slav race as its most serious adversary. 

The Beginnings of Talne. 
Some early letters of Taine, the great historian, 
are noteworthy as revealing the state of mind of 
those struggling men of letters who flourished in 

the late 'forties and early 'fifties — that is, on the 
eve of the Second Empire. That period of French 
history is beginning to prove very fascinating to 
the modern writer; and this is further shown in 
the second number of the " Revue," containing 
several very good articles, of which profoundly in- 
teresting to the student of modern history is M. 
Ollivier's account of Napoleon III.'s half-brother, 
the brilliant and unscrupulous Due de Morny. who 
may be said to have engineered the coup d'etat, 
and who, had he lived, would certainly have pre- 
vented the Franco-Prussian war. It is often said 
that the existence of no human being is really in- 
dispensable to his friends and his country: that 
of Morny seems to have been of practically indis- 
pensable value to his sovereign and to France. 
Louis Napoleon never alluded to their common 
origin; to have done so would have been to throw 
a slur on his much-loved mother's memory; but he 
was well aware that in his half-brother he had had 
a devoted friend and helper, and that his prema- 
ture death struck a blow at the Second Empire 
from which it never recovered. M. Ollivier gives 
a striking account of Morny's last interview with 
the Emperor and with the Empress, but the same 
scene has been described with incomparable art by 
Alphonse Daudet, who made Morny the hero of one 
of his novels under the transparent pseudonym oC 
" Due de Mora." 

In Far Ukraine. 
Everything Russian is still the fashion in France, 
and Mme. Bentzon will find many readers for her 
vivid account of a journey through that portion of 
the great Northern Empire known as Little Russia. 
She considers that the peasantry of Ukraine have 
remained medieval in many of their personal 
habits, in their ardent patriotism, and notably in 
their love of religious observances. While not 
caring for the Greek Orthodox rites, she was 
touched and charmed to find that in the Greek 
Church little children communicate, brought to 
the altar by their mothers in response to our 
Lord's words, " Suffer little children to come unto 

The Revue de Paris. 

The editors of the " Revue de Paris " are devot- 
ing more and more space to fiction. Of the six- 
teen contributions published in the two May num- 
bers, seven consist of works of the imagination, 
the place of honour being given to a translation of 
D'Annunzio's " Gioconda " and Maeterlinck's 
drama " Monna Vanna." 

Belgium's African Empire. 
M. Wilmotte contributes an interesting paper on 
the Congo, and, incidentally, he gives a striking 

Review of Rbvi ws, 
July 20, 1902. 



account of Leopold II., the astute Sovereign of 
Belgium, to whom one of the smallest of European 
States owes what may develop into one of the most 
important of African territories. A little over 
twenty-five years ago Leopold II. convened in Brus- 
sels a meeting of explorers, of famous travellers, 
and of scientists. From this Conference sprang 
the International African Association, and in the 
five years which followed six Belgian African ex- 
peditions, admirably organised, and in each case 
commanded by Belgian military ofiicers, had star- 
ted for Central Africa, with the full approval of 
the King. And so, little by little, Belgium ac- 
quired more and more territory, until in 1885 King 
Leopold was proclaimed Sovereign of the Indepen- 
dent Congo State. Leopold II. is apparently a 
believer in chartered companies, and at the pre- 
sent moment there are twenty-five such associa- 
tions in the Congo State. 

From Greece to South Africa. 
M. Berard is represented by two very different 
articles. The one, entitled " Greek Origins," deals 
with the topography of old Greece. Under the 
somewhat ominous title of " The South African Af- 
fair," the same writer gives a most careful and 
intelligent analysis of Mr. Conan Doyle's now fa- 
mous pamphlet, written avowedly with a view of 
presenting the British Imperialist case to the world 
at large. M. Berard treats his adversary — for 
adversary he considers the author of " The Great 
Boer War " to be — with admirable courtesy and 
fairness; indeed, he goes further, and when tell- 
ing the story of the concentration camps he admits 
frankly that far more was done to remedy the 
state of things than would have been done by any 
other country in a state of war. As he rightly 
says, the famous English novelist's contribution 
to the war literature is a piece of very clever spe- 
<'lal pleading. Of course, M. Berard entirely denies 
that the British Empire has any special mission to 
fulfil to the world at large. In a striking passage 
he sums up the character and aspirations of Cecil 
Rhodes. Those who styled him the Napoleon of 
the Cape, he writes, were wrong; the title which 
would have best fitted him was the Alexander of 
Africa. Like Alexander the Great, his outlook 
was nobler and greater than that of Bonaparte. 
He bases his view of Rhodes' character on two 
articles which have appeared in the " Review of 
Reviews " — that of November, 1899, and that pub- 
lished this last April. He tells the story of the 
negotiations which led to the outbreak of the war, 
and of the Press agitation in favour of the Uit- 
landers; but he is willing to admit that the out- 
break of hostilities would probably not have taken 
place when it did had it not been for the action of 
" that strange knight-errant, who, with his all- 

powerful name, William II., signed the famous tele- 
gram on the morrow of the Jameson Raid." How 
far, he asks, significantly, is the German Emperor 
responsible for the awful carnage which has taken 
place during the last three years? 

Le Correspondant. 

" Le Correspondant " for May again devotes co»- 
siderable space to minute discussions, or the authen- 
ticity of the famous Holy Shroud of Turin. None 
of the critics who write in its columns are at all 
favourable to the authenticity hypothesis; but in 
the May 25 number M. Paul Vignon, author of thu 
much-discussed book on the Shroud, is allowed to 
reply to his critics. It cannot but be felt that the 
critics make out the better case. 

In an interesting article on the wine crisis, and 
the increasing difficulty France finds in disposing 
of her wines, the writer says the only real remedy 
is for France no longer to tolerate the spectacle of 
England supplying British brandy to French colo- 
nies, but to supply them herself. 

"Le Correspondant" is often unconsciously amus- 
ing in its hatred of M. Loubet and all his works. 
In his chronique of the m.onth M. Joubert says: — 

Still, we have one hope left. M. Louoet has just 
solemnly opened in St. Petersburg a night-shelter. . . 
which will bear the name of our President. When 
the Humbert dynasty has done robbing us, and when 
the insatiable Caillaux . . . has quite reduced us to 
beggary, we shall at least have one resource left. We 
can go and beg a place to lay our head in the Loubet 
shelter at St. Petersburg — if the alliance still lasts. 

Deutsche Monatsschrift* 

The " Deutsche Monatsschrift " contains a very 
interesting article by Alfred Kirchhoff upon the 
German settlers in Southern Brazil. It is aston- 
ishing how little is known in England about this 
large immigration of Germans, and it comes as a 
surprise to most Englishmen visiting Germany to 
find what great Importance is attached thereto by 
Germans. There is little doubt that as other 
channels have been blocked to colonial expansion, 
longing eyes are turned towards the fiourishing 
colony in South Brazil. The Monroe doctrine stands 
in the way of annexation, but not of insurrection 
and the forming of another State. The writer 
points out that, although the German colonist has 
penetrated everywhere, it is only in the three 
southern provinces of Brazil that he retains his 
nationality and looks to Germany as his Father- 
land. Much information is given about the climate 
and the country. One of the most beautiful in the 
world, is Mr. Kirchhoff's comment. The colonists 
increase there at a much more rapid race than in 
Germany, the birth rate being between 40 and 50 




July 20, ipo2. 

per 1,000, and the death rate 10 per 1,000, as com- 
pared with a birth rate of 37 and a death rate of 
21 in Germany. There are probably 300,000 Ger- 
mans in South Brazil. In Porto Alegre, wliich is 
the capital of the Rio Grande do Sul province 
there are 25,000 Germans in a total of lOO.COO in- 
habitants! Immigration began in 1824. 

The Italian Reviews 

Professor Zanichelli, of Siena, writing in the 
■' Nuova Antologia " (.May 16) on parties and 
groups in the Italian Chamber, takes a very gloomy 
view of Parliamentary Government in Italy, which, 
according to him, is, passing through a grave 
crisis. The absence of clearly defined political par- 
ties within the Chamber and the lack of good ad- 
ministrative traditions throughout the country, 
which means that administrative action Is fre- 
quently subordinated to politico-parliamentary in- 
terests, are the chief causes he enumerates for the 
unsatisfactory legislative position. The senator, 
P. Blaserna, writes to denounce spiritistic experi- 
ments, and declares that all the experiences he has 
enjoyed for the last half century, from planchette 
and table-rapping to the more elaborate perform- 
ances of Ensapio Palladino, have been founded on 
fraud. He, however, draws a distinction between 
spiritualism and spiritism, the one neing a high 
philosophic conception, the other ohly " a miser- 
able caricature " of the former. Paola Lombroso, 
the daughter of the great scientist, writes some- 
what rapturously concerning the love of flowers 
as one of the permanent characteristics of . the 
human race, and there is a discriminating criti- 
cism of d'Annunzio's " Francesca " by S. Sighele, 
but for the rest the May numbers of the " Anto- 
logia " are scarcely up to their usual level of ex- 

" Emporium ' continues to be among the very 
best of the illustrated magazines. Besides a bio- 
graphical notice with two portraits of Mr. Arthur 
Symons, and an account of the Borghese Villa. 
with excellent reproductions erf all the most cele- 
brated pictures in its galleries, the May number 
contains a very fully illustrated article on the 
Italian sculptor David Callandra, who is also the 
subject of an article in the " Nuova Antologia." 
The reason of this is that after ten years of ar- 
duous labour Callandra has just completed a large 
and elaborate monument to Amedeo, Duke of 
Aosta, which has been erected at Turin. Callandra 
is still comparatively a young man, and his repu- 
tation has scarcely crossed the Alps; but in his 
own country he is regarded as one who, like Rodin, 
has been able to free himself from the trammels 
of conventional sculpture and create for himself 

new methods and fresh inspiration. His latest 
work has been acclaimed with enthusiasm. 

Madame Matilde Serao has entered the ranks of 
editors by founding a little weekly magazine at 
Naples, " La Settimana," which is intended to 
bring good literature within the reach of people 
of limited means. The names of her contributors, 
P. Molmenti, Helene Vacaresco, Paul Bourget and 
others, together with her own frequent contribu- 
tions, promise to give vitality to her venture. 

The Dutch Magazines. 

'• Elsevier 's Geillustreerd Maandschrift " usually 
gives us a fairly good supply of art subjects, and 
this month we have two- articles dealing with ar- 
tists, one on a modern artist and the other on the 
Dutch masters in the Brmitage in St. Petersburg. 
There are reproductions of the works of Franz 
Melchers, the modern subject, which attract at- 
tention, while the article on the old paintings at 
St. Petersburg also contains a reproduction. Ou 
the whole, it seems rather unfair to have two sets 
of reproductions in the same issue; tor although 
one may admire those of the modern, he has to 
take second place when compared with the ancient 
— one is a master, and the other may yet be. 
Comparisons are not always just, yet one cannot 
help comparing when the two are placed before 
one's eyes. There is a good article, fully illus- 
trated, on Mycanae, which forms interesting read- 
ing; there are pictures of quaint drinking cups, a 
golden altar, " The Lion's Gate " and other curi- 
osities, which render the text more enjoyable. The 
continuation of the description of ^ stay among 
the natives of Surinam, a story, poetry and edito- 
rial gossip complete the number. 

" Woord en Beeld " opens with a curious Cninese 
legend, followed by a sketch of Professor Lorentz, 
with portrait. The professor is one of those who 
do great things for the public weal without so 
much as being known, even by name, to many 
who are benefited by his scientific discoveries and 
improvements in the world of industry and trade; 
he ha? devoted himself to many subjects, and it 
was not until his fellow scientists celebrated the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of his " doctorship " that 
his name became generally known. The perusal 
of such a sketch as this serves to remind us that 
in other countries besides Great Britain, Vmerica 
and Germany, scientists are working with an eye 
to commercial progress. A chat about some old 
Gelderland towns is an indication that there arf 
many quiet, quaint spots to be visited during the 
holidays by those who desire rest rather than rush- 
ing about. 


Jolt 20, 1902. 



New Idea 

\A Women's Home Journal I 

for JiastralasiQ ^ 

Monthly, 3d.; post free, 3/- per annum. 
Drawing: Room Edition, 6d. per Copy; post free, 6,- per annui 

Managing: Director: T. Shaw Fitchett. 
OFFICE: 167-9 Queen St.. Melbourne. 


If, on any evening in August next, a magician's hand 
could lift the roofs from the million homes of Aus- 
tralasia, "what would the majority of the womenfoll 
be found doing? Darning stockings, absorbed in a 
piece of fancy work, reading the daily paper, glancing 
over a comic journal? Yes. some would be doing this. 
But the gieat majoritj' — scores of thousands of women, 
old and young — would oe found engrossed in the first 
issue of " THE NEW IDEA." the new woman's home 
journal for Australasia. This, perhaps, seems an 
exaggerated statement, and the natural query that fol- 
lows is: What is "THE NEW IDEA"? A million 
women in Australasia, and not a single decently-printed, 
well-filled, up-to-date journal that they can call their 
ownl That explains in some degree the birth of " THE 
NEW IDEA." It has been published so that Aus- 
tralasian women may have such a journal to call their 
own. True, there have been certain Journalistic 
spasms, which have produced papers that alleged that 
they were for the Women of Australia, but they have 
either died in puny childhood, or have at best reached 
but a small section of the Australian women. Then, 
certain outside magazines — printed in America or Eng- 
land — have made bids for the Australian market, but, 
though their apparent cheapness of price was an attrac- 
tion, their palpable cheapness of material was a de- 
cided drawback, to say nothing of their anachronisms 
in the matter of fashions. In winter-time there wa.s 
a galaxy of bathing suits, and in summer a choice dis- 
play of furs; illustrations for autumn goods came to 
hand in mid-spring, and spring fancies arrived in 
time for autumn. 

" THE NEW IDEA " will remedy all this. It will 
be devoted exclusively to the needs and problems of 
the Australasian home and its mistress. It will al- 
ways be up to late, and will contain no matter or illus- 

trations that are not of absorbing interest to every 
woman in the Commonwealth and New Zealand. But 
snace is too precious, and so is the reader's time, to 
describe in detail the aim and scope of " THE NEW 
IDEA." On the following page is roughly outlined 
the contents of the first issue, to be published on August 
1st. A glance at the headings should convince any 
woman that she cannot do without " THE NEW 
IDEA." Then, again, a page is given, illustrating the 
fashions to be shown in ovir columns. A number of 
these full-page pictures, in addition to small draw- 
ings, will appear regularly. On another page is given 
the details of our great "£50 Good Taste" Competi- 
tion, over which the leading drapery firms of Aus- 
tralasia are co-operating with us. Don't fail to read 
this carefully, or you may miss making £50. 


The price of the magazine will be 3d. per copy, or 
3s. per year, post free, any address. Although the 
magazine will be equal to many ninepenny ones, we 
have fixed the yearlj' subscription rate at 3s., with the 
aim of obtaining 100,000 subscribers. This will en- 
able us to give our readers literary and artistic value 
that would otherwise be impossible. For the con- 
venience of those women who attach special importance 
to art quality of paper, we are issuing a Drawing-room 
Edition at 6d. per copy, or 6s. per annum, post free. 
This edition will correspond exactly with the cheaper 
popular edition, with the exception that the paper 
used will have a smoother surface, and T)e of hea\'ier 

We urge you to read carefully the following pages, 
and if satisfied with our statements, send us at once 
3s., s« we may record your name on our subscribers' 
list. You wUl then receive your first copy during 
the first few days of August. 

Address all communications to T. SHAW FITCHETT, Managing Director, 167-9 Queen St., Melbourne. 

NOTE.— Any woman who becomes a subscriber now has a chance to win the 

"£50 Good Taste ' Competition. 



July 20, IQ02. 

Outline of Contents of ^^ THE NEW IDEA^^ 





Cream of the poetry of the month. 

(Chapter T. — She Wanted to Laugh. 
II. — Lieutenant Feri-v. 

IV. — Three Days' Rations. 
V. — Eighteen, Nineteen, and Twenty. 
VI. — A Handsome Stranger. 
VII. — A Plague of Namt:^. 
VIII. — Another Curtained Waggon. 
IX.— The Dandy's Task. 
X.— The Soldier's Hour. 

'■ The World's Work '' describes our serial as '"' A 
notable book, swift and strong as the rush of cavalry 
squadrons. The breath of life is in it, and the 
elevation of a noble spirit; the shock of war, and 
the passion and thrill of innocent love." 


I.—" Old Days and New," by Julia T. Bishop. 
II.—" White Azaleas," by Helen E. Wright. 


Some pages of genuine humour, giving the best 
drawings and most laughable jokes, culled from the 
best papers of the world. 


Four out of sixteen full-page olates appear in 
this issue, showing Spring costumes, which are con- 
sidered by the firms submitting the designs as 
perfection of style. Our readers are asked to act 
as judges, and the woman with the best taste will 
be paid £50 cash by us. Be sure to read full details 
on another page. 


In this issue is announced the first of a regular 
series of Competitions. Such offers appear as 
a guinea for the best subject for a prize competi- 
tion; and other guineas for such subjec's as " The 
six traits in a man's character which appeal most 
to women." " The best time-saving idea in house- 
hold work," '■ The best definition of a baby," writ- 
ten on a post-card, " The most thrilling personal 
experience," etc. 


This comprises the latest ideas on dress contained 
in pithy paragraphs, illustrated each month with 
many full-page and column drawings. (See sample 
drawing on another page.) 


A department running over several pages, and 
brim-full of the latest recipes for plain and fancy 
dishes; useful hints for work about the house: 
how to make a little money go a long w^iy: the 
" discoveries " of other women in daily duties, etc. 


A cluster of special articles likely to be an in- 
spiration to mothers. 


A page of jileasant and entertaining answers to 
the queries of our readers. 

A special article. 


A strong feature; sure to be of interest to every 
woman. It is packed with valuable hints as to how 
a woman may look her best. 


A record of the extreme developments of fashion, 
etc.. the wide world over (fully illustrated). 


Pictures and paragraphs dealing with every kind 
of fancy work. 


A page which tells every woman how she may 
obtain grace and strength. 


An article giving the very latest games, both for 
young and old, and notes on the best way to enter- 


Bright paragraphs culled from everywhere. 


A page of pithy sayings by clever people, such as, 
'■ Home's where the heart lives and where the bills 
are sent;" " A man who never makes mistakes does 
not realise the pleasure there is in being right." etc. 


A he1pfu\ wholesome chat with girls, by one of 
sympathy and experience. 



Brief articles by notable men and woiiitu on 
tojjics of the hour. 


Two pages devoted to miscellaneous artic'es on any 
household subject. 


Seven or eight pages are devoted to the children. 
In this appears a complete story: " The Frog 
Prince," beautifully illustrated. It is the first of 
a series of wonderful stories, entitled " Fairy Tales 
from !Many Lands." In addition, will appear 
poetry, puzzles, etc. 

The complete issue contains seventy-two pages, well printed and well illustrated. 

Annual Subscription 3s., Post Free, Any Address. 


Review of Kkviews, 

July 20, 19U2. 



The proprietors of " The New Idea ' have decided to conduct 
a novel "Good-Taste" Competition Their object is to test the 
judgment of the women of Australasia on the absorbing question of 
perfection in dress A numbei of firms throughout the Common- 
wealth and New Zealand regarded as the leaders of style in their 
respective cities, have agreed, for the special purposes of this 
competition, to attire a living model m a walking costume 
which in their opinion, represents the height of the 
coming summers fashion. Photographs of the models 
will be reproduced on plate paper and as full pages 
in August September October, and November issues 
of "The New Idea, ' each picture being numbered, and accompanied 
by the name of the firm responsible for the model. > 

Subscribers to "The New Idea" are asked to carefully preserve 
these four issues. In the November number v/ill be published a 
printed form containing numbered spaces. In the space marked " 1 " 
competitor is to fill in the number and title of the costume which, in 
her opinion, most nearly pictures the perfection of style in dress In 
the space marked "II." must be filled in the number and title of the 
costume considered second best In the other spaces must be recorded, 
in the order of merit, the numbers and titles of the remaining costumes 
printed in the four issues already referred to. When list is completed 
it is to be posted to the editor of "The New Idea. 167-9 Queen 
Street, Melbourne, marked on envelope " Good-Taste 'Competition 

On January 1, 1903, all letters received will be opened and a care- 
ful analysis made of all voting-papers A special list will be prepared, 
placing the costume first which receives the greatest number of votes 
for first place, and so on in the order of voting until list is completed 

T o the subscriber whose list most nearly agres.q vyjjh [ 
this speciai "majority" list, the proprietors of " The 
Nev,/ Idea" will pay the sum of Fifty Pounds Cash. 

If tv.'o or more iists ar 


tne sarne. iivj amount wsIj De equally 

Yon may win this £50 Competition! But vou ma.^t tir.~t become a subscriber tt. '• Tiie New Idea." 
Send Z< in [)cstal note-; or M.O. to T. Shaw Fitchett. 167-9 Queen Street, Melbourne. 


THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS. Jul\ 20, 1002. 


The only condition to be observed is that every competitor, at the time of making award, is on our 
books as a full yearly or five-yearly subscriber to "The New Idea." The decision of the editor is to be 
regarded as final. When award i.'^ made, pictures will be reproduced in one issue in the order of merit decided 
by the votes cast. 

Send 3/- now. for the first year (or a five years' subscription of 10/-). and thus make yourself eligible 
for this competition. (Subscribers to Drawing Eoom Edition are also eligible.) " The New Idea" itself is 
worth treble the money. It contains as much genuine high-class reading matter as any ninepenny magazine. 

The following are the firms who are co-operating with us. and have undertaken to provide the special 
costumes for this competition : 

Messrs. George & George, Ltd., Melbourne. Messrs. Martin Bros., Adelaide. 

Messrs. Hicks, Atkinson & Sons, Melbourne. The Bon Marche, Perth. 

Messrs. Bussell, Robson & Bussell, Melbourne. The Drapery and General Importing Co., Wellington. 

Messrs. Bright & Hitchcock, Geelong. Messrs. George & Kersley, Wellington. 

Messrs. D. Jones & Co., Sydney. The Drapery and General Importing Co., Dunedin. 

Messrs. Hordern Bros., Sydney. The Drapery and General Importing Co., Christchureh 

Messrs. Finney, Isles & Co.. Brisbane. Messrs. Smith & Caughey, Auckland. 

The Direct Supply Co., Ltd.. Auckland. 

The co-operation of these leading firms, representing all parts of Australasia, is a splendid endorsement 
•of our scheme, and is at the same time a convincing testimony as to our bona-fides and ability to carry our 
proposal to a successful issue. 



The drawing on the following page has been specially made from " Model " Paper Pattern 
Designs. They are reproduced for the purpose of showing the character and style of the 
" Model " Patterns. 

A handsome Catalogue will be ready by August embodying some hundreds of designs 
of the " Model " Patterns. Any Pattern, in any size advertised, will be posted to any address 
in Australasia for ninepence. -From month to month new Patterns will be brought out, and 
designs described and illustrated in the " New Idea." Current Patterns or standard designs 
may be ordered direct from the office of the " New Idea," 167-9 Queen Street, Melbourne, or 
from any of the agencies we are establishing all over Australasia. 

The " Model " Paper Patterns are the finest thing of their kind in the world. They are 
being introduced into the Commonwealth and New Zealand through the medium of the 
" New Idea." Thus, for the first time. Australasian women will be able to secure, at a uni- 
form and low rate. Paper Patterns which are absolutely reliable, perfectly fitting, and thor- 
oughly stylish and up to date. They are manufactured in New York, from designs created 
by Parisian and American artists, and are used by over two million American women. 

Send three penny stamps to the Manager. Pattern Department, the " New Idea," 167-69 
Queen Street, Melbourne, and our handsome Catalogue, covering all designs, will be mailed 
to your address, post free. 


July 20, 1902. 

THE NEW idea: 



(A number of similar pages will appear regularly in '' The New Idea.") 

104 TH^ REVIEW OF REVIEWS. Inly 20, 1902. 




AND 156, 164, 166, AND 170, REGENT ST., LONDON, W. 

Te.e.raph.cAddre.s. ^^''^^ ^ineii and Daiiiask Manufacturers, 




Members of the Royal Family, and all the Courts of Europe. 

Supply Palaces, JIansions, Villas, Cottages, Hotels, Railways, Steamships, Institutions, 
Regiments, and the General Public, direct wiih every description of 


From the Least EApens^Vetothe FINEST in the WORLD, 

Which, being WOVEN BY HAND. Weap longer and retain the Rich Satin appearance to 

the last. By obtaining Direct, all '••rtermediate profits are saved, and the cost is no more 

than that usually charged for common power-loom goods. 

IDIOU I IMmiO I I^eal Irish Linen Sheeting, fully bleached, ? yards wide, 1/11 per yard ; 2i yards \\-ide, 2/4i per yard. 
IrIwII LINLNu I Roller Towell'ns;, ISiri. wide, .3d. per yard. Surplice Linen, 7d. per jard. Dusters, from 3/3 per doz. 

Linen tilass Cloths, 4 9 per doz. Fine Linens and L neu Diaper, SJd. per yard. Our special Soft Finished Longcloth, from 3d. 

per yard. 

miOU niRflAOl/ TAni C I IKIFIVi ■ Fish Napkins, 2/11 per doz. Dinner Napkins, 5/6 per doz. Table Cloths, 
Irllurl UAIVlAulV I ADLL LIIvLIv I 2 yards square, 2,6 : 2i yards by 3 yards, 5/6 each. Kitchen Table Cloths, 

ll^d. each, strong Huckaback Towels, -1 6 per doz. . onograms. Crests, Coats of Anns, Initials, &;c., woven or embroidered. 

(Special attention to Club, Hotel, or Mess Ordei-s ) 

■ ■■fpill POQ OUIDTO ■ Fine quality Longcloth Bodies, with 4-fold pure linen fronts and cuffs, 3,V6 the hnlf doz. 

111/^ I |jP|_^QQ Vnlll I V I (to measure 2/- extra). New D. signs in our special Indiana Gauze Oxford and Unshrink- 
able Flnnneis for the Season. OLD SHIRTS made good as new, with good materials in Neckbands, Cuffs, and Fronts, for 14/- 
the half doz 


Handkerchiefs I have ever seen."— " Sy.via's Home Journal." Children's, 1/3 per doz. Ladies', 2/3 per doz. Gentlemen's, 
3 3 per doz. Hf.mstitchkd. — Ladies', 2/9 per doz. Gentlemen's, 3/11 per doz. 

miAII I IHiFKi Oni f ADO AHin Plir'CO ■ collars.— Ladies* S-told, 3/6 per doz. Gentlemen's 4-fold, all 
inlun LINtN uULLAnU ANU UUrrOi newest shapes, 4/11 per doz. Cuffs —For Ladies or Gentle 

men, from 5/11 per doz. ••.suij.lice Makers to Wesiniin.ster y^bbey" and the Cathedrals and Churches of the United Kingdom. 

"Their Irish Linen Collars, Cu£s, Shirts, &c., have the n erits of e.xcellence and cheapness."— "Court Circular. " 

||*|Oi|j ll|k|nrnp| nTUIIlIP ■ a luxury now within the reach of allLadle-. Chemises, trimmed Embroiderv, 2/3 ; 
Ullurl UNULnULU I nlhiU ■ Nightdresses, 3/11; Combinations, 4^6. India or Colonial Ontdts, £9 19s. 6d. ; 
Uridal Trouss^eaux, £6 Ts. (id. ; Infants^' Layettes, £2 19s. 6d. (see list). 

IRISH POPLINS AND DRESS MATERIALS: ^^l^^^^:^^ l^^r'z^ ^^t 

better economy to buv iioui l.obiuson and Cleaver." 


Is the Handsomest, Softest, Warmest, Lightest, and Cheapest in the World. 

PRICE 15 6, Extraordinary Value. 


N.B. — To prevent delay, ail letter orders and Inquiries for Samples should be 

sent direct to BELFAST, IRELAND. 

Vc-r mutual advantasp when you write to an advertiser Diease mention the Review of Reviews 

Kkview of Revikws, 
Julv -iit. 1902. 




By "Austealian." 

Weather and Prospects* 

Thwiah rain has fallen during the past month, it has 
only been on isolated inland patches, or on the coastal 
areas, and the benefit pastoralists and agriculturists 
have received has been very small. Complamts are 
fieneral in Queensland and New South Wales, and it 
really looks as if another very unfavourable season were 
to be experienced. In Victoria farmers are in many 
cases giving the crops up for lost, though in a few 
favoured districts they are making moderate progress. 
South Australia is also arought-stricken, while the first 
poor season for a very lengthy period is mentioned in 
Western Australia. "Regarding prospects at rhe time 
of writing they are generally unfavourab'.e to both 
grass and crops, and unless we have a general rain of 
2 to 2A inches, this month, small production during the 
harvest year 1902-1903 must be anticipated. 

Small production means reduced trade, for 
the purchasing power of the community is 
greatly reduced when the returns from their 
labour drop as has been the case during the pasf 
ten months. Already in many Australian inland 
centres failures have been very numerous, and the 
longer the drought continues the greater will the in- 
solvencies of tradesmen become. And insolvent trades- 
men represent, generally, a much greater number of 
insolvent customers. Trade in the large towns is af- 
fected by this condition of affairs; but it is satisfactory 
to note that so far business, though rather limited, is 
sound. A good rain in July would improve the pros- 
pects of trade greatly, and it is to be trusted that 
the hopes of the country people will not be vain. 

Agfriculture in Australia, 

Notwithstanding the terrible drought, cultivation in 
Australia has not declined to any great extent. Taking 
the three States of the Commonwealth in which agri- 
culture is most largely followed, the total cultivated 
area — that is, the area prepared for crop.s, etc., ex- 
clusive of fallow and grass lands — is as follows: — 


Victoria 3.159,312 

South Australia.. 2.238,240 
New South Wales 2,440,968 



1900 1901. 




3,114,132 . 
2,369,680 . 
2,446,767 . 

. 2,965,524 
. 2,236,552 
. 2.274.493 



It will be seen that the figures for 1900-1901 showed a 
slight increase on those of the preceding year; but the 
total for the current season shows a drop of 454.010 
acres. This certainly appears unsatisfactory at first 
sight, but is not serious. Long-continued drought, es- 
pecially in the ploughing season, partly accounts for 
the reduction; and, again, farmers are showing a ten- 
dencj' to cultivate a smaller area on a better sj'steni 
than in previous years. Manuring and drilling are 
making very rapid strides, both here and in South Aus- 
tralia; in fact, it is estimated 60,000 tons of manures 
have been drilled in with the seed this year. Victorian 
figures suggest a rather steady decline, the drop last 
year on the total cultivated area being 149,608 acres, 
and on the two years 193,788 acres. South Australia's 
total is 133.128 acres less on the vear; bur onlv 1,688 
acres less than the 1899-1900 total] The drop in the 

New South Wales cultivated area, last year, was 172,274 
acres, and for the two years, 166,475 acres, the drought 
being almost wholly responsible. 

Taking the two cereals which we have come to look 
upon in this and other States as the most important, 
viz., wheat and oats, the figures are of considerable 
interest. The wheat area compares thus: — 


Victoria 2,l65,69'3 

South Australia.. 1,821,137 
New South Wales 1,426,166 







2,017.321 . 

. 1,754,417 

1,913,247 . 

. 1,743,452 

1,536,669 . 

. 1,389,434 



Up to this year prices for wheat were low, and, 
consequently, farmers' attention has been directed in 
many instances elsewhere, a fact which must be con- 
sidered in examining these figures. 

The oat area is compared below; but it must be re- 
membered the figures apply solely to that area sown 
with oats for grain, and do not include the hay totals. 
The figures are: — 





Fire Losses Paid Exceed £23,000,000. 
Premium Income Exceeds £1,100,000. 


ROBERT \V. MARTIN, Manager. 



July 20, ipo2. 



i Fl 










MELBOURNE— 60 Market Street. 

SYDNEY— 78 Pitt Street. 

ADELAIDE— 71 King William Street. 

BRISBANE— Creek Street. 

PERTH— Barrack Street. 

HOBART— Collins Street. 

LONDON— St. Michael's Alley, Cornhill, E.O. 







For Life Assurance on the Hutual Principle. 
Annuities and t-.ndowments for Children. 

With Offices in all the Australian States 
and in Ne>w Zealand. 

VICTORIA: 459 Collins-st., Melbourne. 

NEW ZEALAND: Custom House Quav, Wellington. 

QUEENSLAND: Queen-st.. Brisbane. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA: 23 King Williara-st.. Adelaide. 

TASMANIA: Elizabeth and Collin.? Sts., Hobart. 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA: St. George's Terrace, Perth. 

Accumulated Funds 
Annual Income - 


The Oldes" Mutual Life OfBco in Australasia, and the largest 
and most liberal in the British Empire 


Amount of cash surplus divided among the Members for the 
single year, 1901, was £538,725; yielding Keversionary Bonuses of 
about £1,000,000. 

General Manager and Actuaby: R. TEEOE, y.l.A., F.F.A., P.S.S. 
KOBEBT B. CAMER jN, Secrkt.vry. 

Head Office: 87 PITT STREET, SYDNEY. 

1899-1900. 1900-1901. 


South Australia . . 
New South Wales 













Had it been possible to include the oaten hay acreage 
for the three States, a very large increase would have 
been shown in the aggregate sowings of this grain, 
and, judging from appearances, this is likely to continue, 
notwithstanding the smaller demands of South Africa. 

South Australian Production* 

...lie official live-stock tigures of South Australia are 
issued along with the figures relating to production, and 
we therefore combine the two in this short summary: — 


1900. 1901. 

No. No. No. 

Horses, working . . . . 120.323 . . 119.362 . . 961t 

Horses, other .. .. 46,467 .. 45,941 .. 526t 

Milch cows 7.5,942 .. 74,995 .. 947t 

Horned cattle, other.. 138.819 .. 150,261 .. 11,442* 

Sheep .. 5,235,220 ..5.012,216 .. 223,004t 

Goats 8,945 .. 8,869 .. 76t 

Pigs 89.734 .. 88,886 .. 848+ 

Poultry 1,348,462 . . 1,351,579 . . 3,117* 

* Increase t Decrease 


Wheat, bushels 

.. 11,253,148 . 

. 8,012,762 

. . 3,240 ,386t 

Potatoes, tons 

14,566 . 



Butter, lbs. .. 

. . 5,525,601 . 

. 4,954,523 

.. 571,083t 

Cheese, lbs. . . 

. . 1,030,680 . 

. 1,053,160 

. . 22,480* 

Honey, lbs. . . 

.. 1,708,133 . 


. . 1,398.080+ 

Raisins, cwt... 

8,151 . 



Currants, cwts. 

2.607 . 



Wine, gals. 

.. 1.388,847 . 

. 2,077,923 

. . 689,076* 

Olive Oil, gals. 

6,520 . 




Increase. f Decrease. 

The wine industry in South Australia is expanding 
very steadily. In 1899 the South Atistralian output 
was only 954,000 gallons, and the jump, in two years, 
to 2,077,923 gallons is a very creditable record. In 
dairy produce the 1901 production was poor. 

Australian Gold Production* 

The gold production of the Commonwealth for the 
first six months of the year shows a moderate increase,, 
principally due to the rapidly expanding output of 
Western Australia, which State, in June, produced 
189,000 ounces, being the second best record in its his- 
tory. The figures for the six States, in crude ounces, 
are apjjended: — 

1901. 1902. 






New South Wales . 






South Australia 






Western Australia . 


. 1,055,754 




The increase shown is 190,917 ounces. The total of 
197,633 ounces is credited to Western Australia alone 
as an increase. Probably the second half of the year 
will show still further expansion, especially as a re- 
covery is being noted in (Queensland. 

Review of Kevikw^, 
July 20, 1902. 



Australasian "Wool Exports. 

Somewhat contrary to expectations, Australasian 
Avool exports for the year ended June 30 last show an 
increase of fair extent. Dalgety & Co.'s iigures show 
a net increase of 47,567 bales in the shipments, the 
totals being distributed thus: — 











Victoria . . 

New South Wales . . 

South Australia 


Western Australia . 








New Zealand . . 


Australasia . . . • 1,609,713 

Net Increase, 47,567 bales. 



The increase may be accounted for, first, by the 
carrying over of a portion of the previous clip into 
the just closed season; and, secondly, by the fact that, 
though sheep have been dying in millions, the wool 
has been picked from their skins, and it will not be 
until the end of the now current season that any great 
deficiency in shipments will show itself. Wool prices 
continue satisfactory, especially for merino and fine 
comeback descriptions, which are up about another 5 
per cent, in London. Coarse crossbreds and long wools 
are about on a par with previous values, except in- 
ferior selections, Avhich are lower. 

Staple Products. 

Cable advices indicate that sugar has touched a price 
hitherto uuKnown. German 88 per cent, beet sugar 
has fallen to 5s. lid. per cwt., and refined whites, 
first marks, to 7s. rates, which are practically but half 
those ruling a few years back. The downward move- 
ment is easily traceable to the immense overproduction 
of beet, under the bounty system, on the Continent. 

Wool continues to maintain its satisfactory position, 
and the current London series of sales shows an ad- 
vance for fine merinoes and comebacks, hut quota- 
tions for crossbreds are irregular. New Zealand and 
the Argentine RepubHc are the two great crossbred 
producing countries. They have had no drought, and 
their flocks and production have increased. Austraha, 
on the other hand, is the great merino producing State. 
Her flocks have decreased by over 40,000,000 in ten 
years, and as there is no immediate prospect of any in- 
crease taking place in production, we must expect still 
higner prices. 

Copper continues to move slightly, about £52 to £53. 
Advices from the other side indicate that the forward 
position is more hopeful, and a recovery to £60 is ex- 
pected by the end of the year. Tin continues to rule 
at prices highly satisfactory to Australian producers, 
the number of whom, by the way, are swelling very 
rapidly. As regards silver ana lead, the movemerits 
of these metals can be gauged by the following official 
list of London averages: — 

1901, average 
January, average 
February, average 
March, average.. 
April, average . . 
May, average 
June, average . . 

Recoveries in both these metals are 

Per Ton. 
£ s. d. 
12 10 5i 

10 11 4 

11 12 3| 
11 10 13-16 
11 12 OJ 

11 11 m 

11 5 5i 

Per Oz. Standard. 


27 3-16 

25 11-16 


24 13-16 

24 5-16 

23 11-16 






Company's Building, Castlereagh and 

Moore Sts., Sydney, N.S.W. 

Branches : Melbourne, Ad-'laid's Brisbane, Pt-rih (W A.), 
Hobart, Wellington (N.Z.), London, and Dublin. 

With Superintendencies and Agencies in all the principal Cities 
and Towns thioiighoiit Australia, New Zealand, and the United 



Annual Premium Income, £341,623 Sterling. 

New Ordinary Branch Assurances Issued, 


(Exclusive of tlie Company'.- vas' Indi strial Branch busines.«). 

In the Company's Ordinary Branch Every Year 
is a Bonus Year. 

The fact that the Company's Policy Holders 

Number Upwards of 225,000 attests 

its popularity. 

All kinds of Industria' and »jrdinary A<3.surance transacted and 
the most approved forms of Policies issued on the lives of men, 
women and children. 

Call or write to any of the Company's Chief Offices, as above, lor 
descriptive insurance literature. 

t>^ FIRE ^< 

Insurance Companv Ltd. 




Policies cover all losses 
by Bush Fires, 1 ightning 
and Gas Expl sion, in 
ad lition to the ordinary 
risk from Fire. 

A Cash Bonus paid to 
Policy Holders each year. 
£141,68 2 has been 
divided in Cash Bonuses 
durinir the last Eighteen 

K'J - ^ r' -"-->.^ .Jgy ^^ 

Head Offices : The Freehold Property of the Company 

KELSO KING, Manager 


Meibourne Office: 9 QUEEN STREET. 



M. T. SADLER, Rbsidbnt Sboretart. 



July 20, igo2. 

The Great Banks* 

From the accounts which keep coming to hand, it 
can be seen that the banks of Australasia are. gener- 
ally speaking, improving their i)osition very steadily. 
Taking, first, the National Bank of New Zealand, the 
folloAving comparison of results can be made, the figures 
being for twelve monthly periods: — 


Net Profits. 




. . £25,538 


. . £15.000 

1898 1899 




1899 190(1 









. 10 


The total amount available for the year ended ^larch 
31 last was £73.227, the dividend arid bonus absorbed 
£25.000, being at the rate of 10 per cent.; £40,000 was 
added to reserve, making it £150.000, and the sum of 
£8.227 was carried forward. The accounts are very 

The Bank of New Zealand, but a few years back, 
looked a hopeless wreck. It was taken "up by the 
State, supported to the extent of millions, and is now 
redeeming itself splendidly. The last three years' work- 
ing compare thus: — 

March. ^larch. March. 

1900. 1901. 1902. 

£ £ £ 

2.000,000,. 2.000.000.. 2,000,000 

419,519.. 421.860.. 427,320 

4 p.c. stock 

Ordinary capital 
Pref. capital held by Gov 


Total capital .. .. 2,919,519.. 2.421.860 

23,474.. 23,474 

.. 722,770.. 770,/ 29 

.. 770.348.. 1,170.030 

Reserve fund 


Bills payable 

Bills rediscouuted in 

London — . . 274,956 

Deposits 8,587,859.. 8.682.504 

Coin, etc 1,407,526.. 1,-554.129 

Money, bills, and other 

securities in London.. 2,667,636.. 2.523.090 

Colonial investments .. 2,385.2.34.. 2.507.584 

Bills and advances .. .. 5.753.026.. 4.111,188 

Premises 422.339.. .388.762 

Bank of New Zealand 

Estates Co 405.327.. 298.479 

Colonial Bank premises 87,233.. 45,398 

Colonial Bank goodwill.. 60.000.. — 

Gross profits 414,076.. 469.291 

Net profits 242,520.. 300.242 



. 1,488,062 

, 2.225,684 
. 4.441,983 
. 356,628 

. 252,255 


After paying £80,000 interest to the State on the 
£2,000,000 guaranteed stock, and making provision for 
depreciation in property, etc., to the extent of £37,000, 
there is a balance of £172.501. A dividend to .share- 
holders, at the rate of 5 per cent., absorbs £21.366. 
and the balance of £151.135 is paid to the As.sets" Re- 
alisation Board, to wipe out losses on properties made 
by that concern. The bank is making very good 

The Union Bank of Australia continues to work 
smoothly and prosperously. The accounts, as per cables, 
for the half-year ended February 20 last, show that 
the profit earned was £96.700. the best yet 
this institution in a February half-year, 
earnings compare thus: — 

Net Dividend. 

Profit. Amount. 

February. 1897 . . £37,578 . . £37,500 . 

Felirnarv. 1898 . . 47,696 . . 37,500 . 

February, 1899 . . 42,071 . . 45,000 . 

Februarv, 1900 . . 92.002 . . 52.500 

February, 1901 . . 86,628 . . 60,000 . . 8 

February, 1902 . . 96.700 . . 60.000 . . 8 

recorded by 
The late 

i'er Cent. 




The principal items of the balance-sheet compare thus: — 

Cash and Bills and 

Feb. Deposits. Investment..^. Securities. 

1899 .. £14,837.784 .. £4,662,047 .. £15.110.258 

1900 .. 15,793.602 .. 5,069.246 .. 15.412.707 

1901 .. 15,249,039 .. 4,666,548 .. 14,874.600 

1902 .. 15,418,747 .. 5,053,381 .. 14.498,977 

The Union has now a reserve fund of £900,000 invested 
entirely in British Government securities, and is the 
only institution doing business in Australasia which 
treats the whole of its reserve in this very proper 
manner. We expect to see the dividend increased 
to at least 9 per cent, next half-year. 

The Bank of Victoria, during the half-j'^ear ended 
June 30 last, earned £33,323 — the best record since 
1894. With £15,304 brought forward, there is a bal- 
ance available of £48,627, which is apportioned thus: 
Dividend on preference shares, 5 per cent, per annum, 
£10,419; dividend on ordinary shares. 3^ per cent, 
per annum (increased from 3 per cent.), £18,572, and 
to reserve fund £10,000, the last now amounting to 
£140,000. The balance of £9.366 is carried iorward. 
The accounts compare thus: — 

June. June, June, 

'1900. 1901. 1902. 

Pref. capital £416.760.. £416,760.. £416,760 

Ord. capital 1.060.717.. 1.061,2.50.. 1,061,250 

Notes 134,291.. 125,179.. 117.921 

Bills 394.375.. 490.551.. 436,166 

Government deposits .. 520.564.. 502.194.. 345,597 

Public deposits 4,126,228.. 4,201,393.. 4.21.5,407 

Reserve fund 100.000.. 120,000.. 140.000 

Liquid assets 1.573.250.. 1,638.011.. 1,552,651 

Bank premises 240.444.. 243,512.. 244,783 

Real estate *192.809. . 162,677.. 157,868 

Bills and advances .. .. 4,317,895.. 5.007,240.. 4,853,736 
Shares in other companies 4,050.. 4,050.. 4,050 

Expenses of management 35,922.. 36,593.. 37,9.39 

Bank note tax 1,321.. 1.289.. 1,284 

Gross profits 65.796.. 69.280.. 72.547 

Net profits 28,553.. 31.398.. 33.323 

*Balance-sheet showed £38,771 written oft'. 

A Provincial Banking Company. 

The Ballarat Banking Company's accounts for the 
half-year ended June 30 last are very satisfactory. Re- 
sults ut the half-year's working compare thus: — 

Net Dividend. Fund and Un- 

Profit. Per Cent. divided Profits. 

June, 1899 :. £3,021 .. 5* .. £.57,463 

June, 1900 .. 3,154 .. ol .. 58,993 

June, 1901 . . 3,540 . . 6 . . 60,483 

June. 1902 .. 3,689 .. 6 .. 62,402 

The institution is small, 'but prosperous. Its reserve 
fund is being steadily increased. Tt has the dis- 
tinction of being the only surviving provincial bank in 
the colonies. 

Australasian Loans. 

The Australasian loans floated during the first half 

of the year were as follows: — 

Western Australia, 3^ per cent., at £102, Lon- 
don, January £1,500,000 

Victoria, 3 per cent., at £94, Melbourne, 
March 250,000 

South Australia, Treasurv Bills, 3i per cent., 
at par, March, Adelaide .. ..' 850,000 

Queensland. 4 per cent.. Treasury Bills, at 

£102, Australia, April 530,000 

New South Wales, 3 per cent., 94i, London. 
May . . "" 3,000,000 

Victoria (offers), at 3 per cent., at £94, Mel- 
bourne, June 250,000 

Various States, sales of stock (funded and 
inscribed from Treasurv) 700.000 

New Zealand (private) ." 150,000 

Total £7,230,000 

Revibw f Reviews, 
July 20, 1902. 



. The loans definitely known as required during the 
second half of the year are as follows: — 

Victoria, at 3 per cent, at £96 10s., London, 

(announced) £1,000,000 

Queensland, at 3i per cent., London 1,000,030 

South Australia, 3i per cent., 7-year T. Sills.. 7.50_,0U0 
^V estern Australia, 3^ per cent., London . . 1,000,000 
New Zealand, 3 per cent., London 1,750,000 

Total £5,oo0,000 

Alter taking into account the private issues of the 
various Governments, and the sales of stock, the year 
will scarcely close without a total of £15,000,000 being 
added to the total borrowings of the States and New 

On July 29 the Victorian Savings Banks Commissioners 
will open tenders for £100,000 4|-year debentures, carry- 
ing interest at the rate of 3i per cent., ^nd with a Gov- 
ernment guarantee. The minimum is 99^^, and the rate of 
interest is equal to £3 12s. 4d. per cent. A comparison 
with previous issues is appended: — 

Nominal ^lini- Actual 

Amount. Interest. mum. Interest. 

P.c. P.O. 

March, 1901 ..£100.000 .. 3 . . £97 . . £3 7 11 

August. 1901 .. 100,000 .. 3 .. 96 .. 3 10 1 

Februarv. 1902 100,000 .. 3.V . . 99^.. 3 10 8 

July, 1902 .. 100,000 3i . . 99* . . 3 12 4 

We can recommend this issue to investors desirous of 
obtaining £3 r2s. 4d. per cent, for their money, with 
a Government guarantee for its payment. 

The loan expenditure of New South Wales has often 
been the subject of comment in this article. The 
actual figures for 1901-1902 are just to hand. They 
compare thus: — 

1896-1897 . . £1,548,105 

1897-1898 . . 1,707,972 

1898-1899 . . 2,102,192 

1899-1900 . . 2.295,895 

1900-1901 . . 2,879,726 

1901-1902 .. 5,213,252 

Total for six years . . 15,747,142 

This rate of expenditure, it is to be hoped, will not 
be maintained. 

An AmaIg:amation. 

That progressive concern, ^Messrs. Younghusband & 
Company Proprietary Ltd.. has added materially to 
its business by amalgamating with R. Goldsbrough, Row 
& Co. Proprietary Ltd. Younghusbaud's have already 
absorbed three other firms. 

Insurance News and Notes. 

An important decision aft'ecting fire insurance in- 
terests was given by Judge Hamilton in the Victorian 
County Court on the 4th inst. The Victoria 
Insurance Co. were suing Clara Ann Craven, of the 
Atlas Works, Richmond, for a premium of £15 for an 
insurance on her property. Tne former policy was ex- 
piring, and the insured took out a cover note for 
fourteen days from the Company, pending re-arrange- 
ment of the schedule. The insurance was eventually 
effected in another company, and the Victoria Co. con- 
sequently sued Mrs. Craven for the above sum, premium 
being calculated at the regular scale of short-period 
rates, viz., one-eighth of the annual prenuum for a 
two-weeks' insurance. The defendant contended that 
if liable at all, she should only pay a proportionate part 
of the year's premium, and accordingly, paid £5 15s. 
into court, with a denial of liability. The judge 



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A handsome, 
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On receipt of 
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20s., we send the Watch, carefully packed and regi-*- 
tered, to any address in Australasia. Satisfaction guar- 
anteed. Please address orders — 

Star movcltv) Co..^^''-"^Ml°y-j^|^\^^^^^' 




Open face, cylinder move- 
ment, damasked back; a very 
pretty watch, and reliable 

We send, carriage paid (re- 
gistered) to any part of Aus- 
tralasia, on receipt of postal 
note for 20s. 

Star IRoveltv Co., 

220-231 COLLINS ST.. MELB. 


lurks in all springs and reservoirs, 
clear to the naked eye, but alive with 
germs to the eye behind the micro 
scope. These germs carry disease 
into your system. The 


Pure Water Still 

eliminates the germs, all mineral mat- 
ter and sediment, and converts the 
water into a pure, sweet, invigorat- 
ing drink. Our Still yields the 
right quality of water in ampl,' 
quantity. Made of copper, witii 
nickel taps. Price 40s., carriage paid 
(parcels post). Write for Booklet. 

Ci*-«« •<n.^«^f^« ir^ 229-231 COLLINS STREET, 

Star TROVelt^ do., Melbourne, 



Tidy 20, igo2. 

did not go into the latter question, but stated that if 
the company had stood on their legal rights, she could 
not have recovered sixpence under a cover note. It 
was merely a debt of honour, which, he believed, it was 
the practice of the insurance companies to recognise. 
He therefore gave a verdict for defendant, with costs, 
and ordered the return of the amount paid into court. 

Lloyd's underwriters have made heavy losses over 
their Coronation insurances, under which merchants, 
proprietors of stands, caterers, and other speculators 
protected themselves from loss if the Coronation did 
not take place before the end of July. As the event 
is apparently fixed for the middle of August, heavy 
claims will have to be met under the above policies. 

The bonus certificates for 1901 were issued by the Aus- 
tralian Mutual Provident Society on the 1st inst., the 
total amount thus distributed being £538,725, providing 
reversionary bonuses of about £1,000,000. Since the 
inception of the Society it has returned, in bonuses to 
policyholders, over 35 per cent, of the premiums re- 
ceived from them. 

The Mercantile Mutual Fire Insurance Company's 
balance-sheet, which closed on June 30, snows that the 
premiums received amount to £55,426 17s. Zd. The 
balance at credit of profit and loss account is £20,930 
7s. 7d., of which amount the board have applied £11,08.5 
7s. 5d. as a cash bonus of 20 per cent, on premiums, di- 
vided between policyholders and shareholders, and 
carrv £9,845 Os. 2d. forward. 


{Member Stock Exchange of Adelaide), 

29, 29a royal EXCHANGE, [Telephone 629. 


Most people love Pets. 

Most people have Pets. 

Most people have Pet Corns. 

All people wish they hadn't. 
Why keep such 

troublesome Pets 

when . . . 


is within reach of all. 

Post Free, any Address, 1/- 




H . L E E a^ K , 

Cbemist S. S)rugcii»t, 

TEL. NO 1926. 



For use on face and body. 
GIA, and RHEUMATISM -a specific. 
Removes Wrinkles. Gold, 21/-; Silver, 16/-, 
Post Free (in plain cover; ta any part of Aus- 
tralasia. Pamphlets Free. 


Sox 440, G.P.O, Melbournb. 

Fire Protection of Hospitals. — The danger of fire in 
large institutions is always serious, and the loss of 
life which has unfortunately occurred in the past has 
led the authorities to take special precautions. One 
of the best is the provision of portable hand fire ap- 
paratus, enabling an outbreak of fire to be dealt 
with promptly; and the Metropolitan Asylums Board 
has evidently recognised this, for it has just given an 
order for over 160 Merryweather hand fire pumps, to 
be placed in London Fever Hospitals. — " Port Maga- 

♦ » » « * 

The barque Strathgryfe, which went ashore oif Shell- 
back Island, near Waratah Bay, about three months 
ago, has been successfully floated by the underwriters, 
to whom she was abandoned. It is estimated that they 
will recoup themselves to the extent of £10,000 of 
the amount for which the vessel was insured. 

Under the new Queensland Life Assurance Companies 
Act, recently passed, life companies transacting busi- 
ness in that State are required to deposit at least 
£10,000 with the Government. We understand that 
the Citizens' Life Assurance Company Ltd. has deposi- 
ted with that Government over £100,000 in Government 
securities and debentures, more than ten times the 
amoirat required by law. Policyholders should be 
amply satisfied with" the security offered them by their 


* » * * * 

The rapidity with which American life assurance 
companies are amassing funds is marvellous. From a 
recent return it is seen that the combined assets of 
the life companies transacting business in the State of 
New York, on December 31, 1901, amounted to nearly 


* * * * ♦ 

A local Board of Directors has been formed at the 
West Australian branch of the Citizens' Life Assur- 
ance Co., consisting of the following gentlemen: — The 
Hon. George Throssel, M.L.A.; T. F. Quinlan, Esq., 
M.L.A.; Walter H. James, Esq., K.C.. M.L.A. 

Among the recipients of the recent Coronation 
Honours were the Hon. Sir John See, K.C.M.G., M.P.. 
and the Hon. Sir F. W. Holder, K.C.M.G.. M.P., who 
are Directors of the Citizens' Life, at head office 
and South Australia respectively. 

The fire insurance loss in the United States during 
the year 1901 totalled 100,800,000 dollars, about 5.400.000 
dollars larger than that of 1900. 

The Citizens' Life Assurance Co.'s new business re- 
turns for the past few months are showing very large